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ali3nx
l33t
l33t


Joined: 21 Sep 2003
Posts: 612
Location: Winnipeg, Canada

PostPosted: Wed Jun 23, 2004 2:08 pm    Post subject: Installing Gentoo - The Developers Method - Stage1 and NPTL Reply with quote

For all current purposes this tutorial should be considered retired or out of date and you should use the gentoo handbook to guide you during your installation of gentoo linux. My reasonings for this are not that stage1 has been retired. Stage1's are and will allways continue to be a valuble installation method but since the current release of 2006.0 gentoo linux nptl toolchain has become the default and will be forever the default once 2.4 glibc is mainstream. Yes linuxthreads is being retired. All good things take effort and this legacy which followed the birth of a new technology due to become a legacy has certainly been a legacy for me and years of effort. People beg me to update this tutorial but alas this legacy has run it's course. Your wecome to use any of the writings for your own resources for tips or research on how to build key parts of Gentoo Linux but you should be aware that unless you have a reason for bootstrapping your merely just wasting your valuble time. I thank each and everyone of you who found this to be such a great resource and look forward to being on the forefront of the next evolution of linux core systems developments.

Any of the configuration files for this tutorial can allways be found at http://www.eliteitminds.com/filename

If you require one on one support with this tutorial and nobody can be reached in the forum thread some of my collegues and i have established a Gentoo and linux in general support channels on Rizon irc Network. The address is irc://irc.rizon.net/gentoo and irc://irc.rizon.net/linux All are welcome

Currently Gentoo 2005.1 is stable and if your after every ounce of bleeding edge performance from the x86 architecture you've found the right install tutorial. The mania linux user ventures here with a millisecond stop watch and low lat coffee. The minimal 2005.1 is all you will require as a default for livecd selection. The other subarch specific cd's have precompiled binaries on them that will nevertheless require massive updating over the duration of the current grp cd's release currency and do not have support for nptl by default. I don't use them personally since Gentoo is a full network capable install that only meets my strict specifications when built according to these methods. Listen up and you'll have the sweetest nix box on your block.

Here's the NPTL From Scratch Primer couresy of Gentoo Linux and EliteitMinds Technologies

Few Props and Mentions
-----------------------------
Credit goes out to SyN-AcK for the text template and Kerin Millar for all the low latency coffee. Go kerf!

Greets to old buds at Betasirc. Wouldn't be the admin i am today without ya'll
Davetha, End3r, DR, UnNaturalHigh, OneEightSeven, n30, phantam, metwo, expunge and all the rest of ya.
Cudos to Logan for his amazing work with mrtgout and for his "Description of screen" =]

Many thanks to all the developers of Gentoo Linux that helped me learn.
kleiber, Ramareth, solar, lcars, jforman, Lv, Kerframil and so many more. Gentoo Linux Infrastructure was a lesson that has some of the greatest collective agility in the industry. What was learned will most certainly be a contributing foundation for many years to come.

May you all Compile Long and Prosper ;]

Obtaining Gentoo Linux Livecd and ensuring you boot from a "stable" linux kernel
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Use my official Gentoo Linux file and rsync mirrors if you like to obtain a stable gentoo livecd.

http://gentoo.eliteitminds.com 100MBit bgp4 Stage1 nptl Hardened 2.6 Gentoo
rsync://rsync.eliteitminds.com 100MBit bgp4 Stage1 nptl Hardedned 2.6 Gentoo

Pimp the latest LiveCD that the dev's have to offer mere mortals.
http://mirror.datapipe.net/gentoo/releases/x86/2005.1/livecd/install-x86-minimal-2005.1.iso
iit's small, (70~90 megs) innocent and builds the most massive choke proof servers known to man aslong as your using stable kernels. 2.4.x will not get the job done here. Note that there's a new badboy in town and his name is lxnay. wtf is lxnay? hehe... if you've ever used knoppix or read about it lxnay is both an individual and a developer that created the Gentoo founded alternative to knoppix. Gentoo's release engineering team currently doesn't release of develop installation media that has a completely working desktop environment. Lxnay's RR series livecd's are perfect for the user that would require or could use a gentoo installation from a working gui desktop environment vs. gentoo's default iso's that are console mode only. The end results
are identical so the install iso you choose to use for installing is completely optional.

lxnay's RR Series gentoo iso's can be found here

After burn the cd as a dao image, boot from the cd ensuring you have a dhcp server reachable by network to simplify your initial network setup for the actual installation. Gentoo has defaulted to 2.6 kernel livecd's which are just what we require for this installation. Previous installations required "smp" boot options to use this tutorial but the 2.6 kernel is most certainly stable enough and 2.4 has entered maintainance mode so "smp" is no longer required. You nevertheless will be running an smp 2.6.x kernel but there's no reason to be alarmed as this is now the default behavior. Only 2.6.5-r1 or newer linux kernels that can properly link toolchain with 2.6.x stable linux headers and native linux posix threading.

Why use Screen Before Installing
---------------------------------------
Screen could be described as a terminal emulator... or maybe a multi user terminal. More than one user can join an ssh session simultaneously with very little frustration making those moments when assistance would be super benificial all that more easy to accomplish. I prefer it best for "holding" a terminal open while your not actually even connected to the tty that you started when screen was executed or for having more than one user join a common workspace inside a linux system. If your following me this has some very good advantages while your installing gentoo. Two major advantages are if your disconnected your running compile will not fail or halt but rather continue while your have gone off to eat hotdogs and drink beer over the football game or to have an experienced user help you throught the course of an installation. It can suck running bootstrap twice if you loose a remote connection or something goes awry. For those of you that have personally had me install your systems congratulations and thank you for the experience.

Starting Screen
---------------------
To start screen type

Code:
screen


at the command prompt and continute with your work. Should you need to disconnect from screen for any reason

Code:
ctrl+a+d


To re-attach to screen type

Code:
screen -x


Sure beats logging off and killing your compile by accident =]

Setting hard disk and cdrom transer modes with hdparm for maximum disk performance
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
So you have the sexiest windows box in the universe eh...? Think it's quick..? I think not.
In windows you do not have a utility to physically affect changes to the hard drives performance parameters. Linux does. hdparm is that utility that allows you to set your hard disks and cdroms to utilize the fastest 32bit and udma transfer modes for supported by your hard disks. Keep in mind that hdparm is intended more for ide ~ udma ~ ata based systems because sata and scsi disks have the ability to dynamically affect these changes from the scsi controller's chipset. Gentoo linux adds hdparm in all the livecd's. Even minimal livecd's. The results from using it can save you days of waiting for apps to compile if your motherboards ide chipset does not automatically set the hard drives performance parameters to use 32bit i/o, multcount and readahead disk modes tuned just for your system. Hard disks, cdroms, cdrw's, dvdrw's all may require these modes to be set to allow your system to truly achieve the performance linux can really offer. Below you will see four examples. The first is a non optimized drive offering no dma, 32bit i/o, multicount or unmaskirq usage, The second and third shows how to set these modes for hard disks and optical storage readers and writers. The fourth are the results of the settings.

The un-optimized view would or could look such as this does
Code:
hdparm /dev/hda

/dev/hda:
 multcount    =  0 (off)
 IO_support   =  0 (default 16-bit)
 unmaskirq    =  0 (off)
 using_dma    =  0 (off)
 keepsettings =  0 (off)
 readonly     =  0 (off)
 readahead    = 256 (on)
 geometry     = 16383/255/63, sectors = 78165360, start = 0


To set the optimized transfer modes for most hard disks from the livecd do the following

Code:
hdparm -d1c3u1m16A1 /dev/hda


To set the optimized transfer modes for most cdrom/rw and dvdrom/rw devices from the livecd do the following if your livecd is in the master cd device for all cdroms. If your livecd is the second of two cd devices substitute cdroms0 with cdroms1 or use hdparm and set the parameters for both devices to ensure they are set to achieve maximum performance. Your system runs from this cd while it builds so giving it all the data bandwidth it can use would be very benificial. keep in mind that cdroms do not use multicount.

Code:
hdparm -d1c3u1 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0


The optimized results

Code:
hdparm -d1c3u1m16A1 /dev/hda

/dev/hda:
 setting 32-bit IO_support flag to 3
 setting multcount to 16
 setting unmaskirq to 1 (on)
 setting using_dma to 1 (on)
 setting drive read-lookahead to 1 (on)
 multcount    = 16 (on)
 IO_support   =  3 (32-bit w/sync)
 unmaskirq    =  1 (on)
 using_dma    =  1 (on)


Setting up network
----------------------
2005.1 is stable with loading networking on boot however there will be the odd occasion that you will need to go back to the drawing board and run through the paces manually and setup your networking if you dont have a dhcp server on your network.

Code:
ifconfig eth0
If you recieve and error you will need to research which kernel module your nic needs to load driver support. If users have problems with their network cards, they should use lspci to find what type of nic they have and then look up what drivers it should use.
mine is a Realtek that doesn't require the c++ module,
modprobe foo
ifconfig eth0
dhcpcd eth0
ping -c4 yahoo.com


If you see packet traffic it's time to continue. If not your quite welcome to join me in gentoo's irc chans for user support

Setting your date and time
-------------------------------
Source built linux does "tag" some of the compiles with dates and times of the compiles and if your date is not set this could create a problem. Later in the installation we will setup a network time client to eliminate "clock skew" that can cause compiles to halt. Perl is especially more fragile to this condition.

Code:
date --help
Usage: date [OPTION]... [+FORMAT]
  or:  date [-u|--utc|--universal] [MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss]]
Display the current time in the given FORMAT, or set the system date.

date 071800332005
Mon Jul 18 00:33:00 CDT 2005


Fdisk Primer && Setting up filesystems
---------------------------------------------

First check your system for available disks if this command prints nothing you have a problem that is outside the scope of this tutorial

Code:
fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 54.8 GB, 54896492544 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6674 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes


Using fdisk - fdisk in a nutshell.. The manual of fdisk

Code:
The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 14593.
There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
and could in certain setups cause problems with:
1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
(e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)

Command (m for help): m
Command action
a toggle a bootable flag
b edit bsd disklabel
c toggle the dos compatibility flag
d delete a partition
l list known partition types
m print this menu
n add a new partition
o create a new empty DOS partition table
p print the partition table
q quit without saving changes
s create a new empty Sun disklabel
t change a partition's system id
u change display/entry units
v verify the partition table
w write table to disk and exit
x extra functionality (experts only)


Fdisk your available disks
----------------------------------------

Everyone has a preference. Thats fine. I prefer fdisk over cfdisk due to fdisk giving you more granular control over the partitioning process which lets you better plan for your installation and set the partition numbers, size, and attributes yourself. 1GB swap partitons are a decent compromose for planning ahead in your installation. Trust me folks... Gentoo does not use swap often but why risk it. I've seen a 3.2HT p4 eat 1gb of ram AND 1gb of swap. When your applications are compiled to utilize every available cpu register they don't need a place to sit down and take 5. Swap will become something a high capacity system with thousands of users will nevertheless utilize. I also highly recommend using +100M or larger boot partitions for a 2.6.x kernel install. 2.6.x kernels use allot more space than 2.4 and hey.. why redo it later. This setup lasted me for more than a year. Till asshat stole my server... No logical partitions are required if your using the entire disk for Gentoo Linux in a basic configuration with no raid or LVMs

Code:
fdisk /dev/hd#  where # = the letter of your hard disk you would like to install gentoo on. substitute hd# with sd# if you have scsi or sata devices.


your boot partition should be hda1 if you have an ide disk or sda1 if your using scsi or sata

Code:
/dev/sda1 * 1 13 104422 83 Linux

your boot partition should be hda1 if you have an ide disk or sda1 if your using scsi or sata

hda2 or sda2 for swap +1024M for 512MB of ram and 1024M for 1GB of ram
Code:
/dev/sda2 14 257 1959930 82 Linux swap


hda3 or sda3 for / using the remainder of your physical disk.
Code:
/dev/sda3 258 6674 51544552+ 83 Linux


Set hda1 to Active with "a" and also change the swap partitioon "type" of hda2 to swap By pressing "t" and entering type "82 See the fdisk manual above if your confused

Code:
a toggle a bootable flag


********* Mucho Grande Importante ************

Code:
w - to write out the partition table and exit fdisk.


Here's what your partition table should look like after your done. The below code snippet is the partition table from an nptl fueled dual 3.06 xeon with AACRAID and 2GB of ram that serves as a gbit bgp4 packet shaper at a datacenter i admin for that hosts an oc192 dark fiber pop. I personally installed this server myself.

Code:
Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sda1 * 1 13 104422 83 Linux
/dev/sda2 14 257 1959930 82 Linux swap
/dev/sda3 258 6674 51544552+ 83 Linux



Creating Filesystems
--------------------------------

Using ext2 or ext3 would be such a waste. It's slow, it cannot output i/o at the rates of reiserfs 3.6 or reiser4... For this example we'll use reiserfs 3.6.

Reiser4 was recently released as a stable filesystem and if you've been folIowing the news on reiser4.. It's the fastest filesystem on the planet. I will be adding Reiser4 as an optional filesystem in this tutorial in the near future as time permits.

To create file systems:

if you have an scsi or sata drive replace hda with sda appropriately in the following code examples

Code:
mkreiserfs /dev/hda1
mkreiserfs /dev/hda3
mkswap /dev/hda2
swapon /dev/hda2


Mounting
--------------
Code:
mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo
mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot
mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot


Retrieving a Base System Stage
-------------------------------------------------

If your planning a stage1 installation use a generic x86 stage1 gentoo stage. It's the only stage that will let you build a full posix install with the native linux posix threading model that makes pthreading look like childs play. To use it you must compile every application to support it specifically toolchain which primarily consists of glibc and gcc. For this example were goin for brutal speed and agility so if you've been following it's stage1 were planning to build. Precompilied applications in a can will leave you with broken libs or unsupported features. I find that the best results are obtained by compiling it all. Linux systems are akin to a tree; if the tree has no roots it's leaves will fall and the tree will die.

Code:
cd /mnt/gentoo/
wget http://distfiles.gentoo.org/releases/x86/current/stages/x86/stage1-x86-2005.1-r1.tar.bz2
tar xjpvf stage1*.bz2


Setting make.conf
-----------------------------------
I have a completed make.conf available for everyone to download and edit to suit thier requirements. I've made notes and comments where appropriate to reflect any known bugs and have done my best to make this configuration as heterogenious as possible. due to the amount of variables in gentoo's make.conf they cannot be covered in this tutorial. If you require some assistance ingesting how make.conf works gentoo's official portage documentation can be found here

Code:
cd /mnt/gentoo/etc && rm -f make.conf && wget http://www.eliteitminds.com/make.conf


!! Important!! Ensure your USE= is set properly before you proceed with bootstrap or your results will be unsatisfactory at best. Not setting USE= will exclude important options such as nptl threading and added security features. The very minimum of USE= will not bootstrap for nptl. If your completely lost and have no clue what use flags are used by default they are properly defined in the portage profile as shown in the code example below. You must add USE="nptl" in make.conf regardless to bootstrap supporting nptl threading. Any "USE flags" added to make.conf now compliment the defaults in the standard system profile. Do not edit the profile! I have provided a skeleton make.conf suitable for a variety of Intel and AMD based processor machines that requires a minimum effort of editing to suit your requirements. Read the comments in make.conf for specific instructions.

Code:
nano -w /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf


Mounting /proc
------------------
Before chrooting you must mount procfs from the running
livecd into the hard drive's newly extracted filesystem for stuff to
operate properly while chrooted.

Code:
mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc


*OPTIONAL* Mounting /dev
---------------------------------
Also /dev on the livecd should be mounted into the chroot if you experience some dufficulties setting up grub if your using a promise or other offboard ide card
Code:
mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev


Chrooting
---------------
Code:
cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf
chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash
env-update && source /etc/profile


Getting the Portage Tree
------------------------------
Code:
cd /usr/
wget http://distfiles.gentoo.org/snapshots/portage-latest.tar.bz2
tar xjpvf portage-latest.tar.bz2
emerge sync


2.6.x Stable linux-headers are a must for nptl
-----------------------------------------------------------------
The developers have been slowly making the migration to 2.6 allot easier and it's no longer nessesary to unmask linux2.6-headers to allow use of the latest linux headers. Previously I would add sys-kernel/linux-headers ~x86 to package.keywords but Lv changed the ebuilds to allow unfettered use of these packages with no special keywording if your using ~x86 in make.conf. Regardless you must remove the default 2.4.x headers favoring building toolchain for a 2.6 linux kernel *using* 2.6.x linux-headers not the latter 2.4 fodder that runs like redhat/fedora or a kid with a soggy diaper if you prefer... Were after capacity servers that eat 200.00 loads and not choke. Using 2.4 linux headers with nptl bootstraps will break toolchain and possibly your marrage when your sitting at your desk on sunday morning :lol:


Bootstrapping the System, Emerging System, Setting Runlevels - All One Command
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Below i've setup a command that will complete stages 1 through three continuiously with the next following. The new stages do not include linux headers however i'm never going to accept a risk at a tutorial users' expense so i've left rac's linux-headers install reccomendation just where it was last year. For those that frequently use this installation method can recall not including rac's install aid would create breakage resulting in /lib/cpp sanity errors. Whats that you might be asking? If you were to get one they are very difficult to fix and usually require you to restart your installation. Redundancy is key and i will allways afford you this precaution.

Never one to break with tradition i present to you...

The Year gentoo compiled me oneliner :wink:

Code:
env-update && source /etc/profile && emerge --oneshot --nodeps gcc-config && USE="-* build bootstrap" emerge linux-headers && cd /usr/portage && scripts/bootstrap.sh && emerge libperl && emerge libperl && emerge --newuse -uD system && emerge syslog-ng xinetd grub hotplug coldplug vixie-cron reiserfsprogs reiser4progs sysfsutils udev dhcpcd && emerge --nodeps acpid ntp && rc-update add syslog-ng default && rc-update add net.eth0 default && rc-update add vixie-cron default && rc-update add xinetd default && rc-update add sshd default && rc-update add hotplug default && rc-update add coldplug default && rc-update add acpid default


Preparing for adding your kernel source tree by setting up ntp-client to eliminate clock skew
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
There's just not enough time in a day... and it's a little known fact that a computer has two clocks. One is a hardware clock and the second is a software clock that runs in the os. They however do not stay in sync which creates a condition known as clock skew that can cause havok with source build operating systems such as gentoo linux. Clock skew can cause source compiles to fail. We allieviate this problem by adding a network time protocol client into the installation.

Code:
rc-update add ntp-client default && ntpdate -b -u pool.ntp.org


Emerging linux kernel sources
----------------------------------

Code:
emerge gentoo-sources


Setting your system's timezone symlink
-----------------------------------------------
List the timezone files in the system and find the timezone that closest matches your location ion our big blue ball in the dark liniverse. Keep in mind they will not be added until after bootstrap or until after glibc compiles.

Code:
ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/
Africa      Atlantic   Canada  EST5EDT  Factory  GMT-0      Iceland  Japan      MST7MDT  Navajo   Portugal   Turkey     W-SU         posixrules
America     Australia  Chile   Egypt    GB       GMT0       Indian   Kwajalein  Mexico   PRC      ROC        UCT        WET          right
Antarctica  Brazil     Cuba    Eire     GB-Eire  Greenwich  Iran     Libya      Mideast  PST8PDT  ROK        US         Zulu         zone.tab
Arctic      CET        EET     Etc      GMT      HST        Israel   MET        NZ       Pacific  Singapore  UTC        iso3166.tab
Asia        CST6CDT    EST     Europe   GMT+0    Hongkong   Jamaica  MST        NZ-CHAT  Poland   SystemV    Universal  posix


Now you must remove the default timezone symlink and create a new one which is linked to the timezone info file that matches your timezone. I'm currently in Pacific Standard Time (Vancouver, Canada) so i chose /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/Vancouver as my timezone file. Note that locating the closest city in your timezone will help your system automatically adjust for daylight savings time changes appropriately. replace /usr/share/zoneinfo/{path/to/your/timezonefile} in the code example below with the correct and appropriate timezone file for your location.

Code:
rm /etc/localtime && ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/{path/to/your/timezonefile} /etc/localtime


Configuring the Kernel - Now with udev and gensplash!!!
------------------------------------------------------------------

Since linux 2.6.13 devfs support has been removed so you should be prepared to switch to udev. Hotplug, coldplug and sysfsprogs are a must for udev. udev runs so much better for desktop environments than devfsd so i've decided to take you all under the knife. It's very simple to setup. Add Hotplug firmware loading in your kernel config, remove devfs filesystem support emerge udev sysfsutils and you have the base requirements for udev to function properly. lspci is truly the kernel builders swiss army knife. Light years ahead of genkernel, helps you the tutorial user know what to configure in your kernel and aids with your familiarization of linux and devices. After typing lspci && lsmod (copy the output to a txt file that you can use for reference then use my base kernel .config and modify to your requirements. Genkernel will get you up and going but your system will not run as efficiently as it could

To get the kernel config skel file do the following
Code:
cd /usr/src/linux && wget http://www.eliteitminds.com/.config && make menuconfig

Welcome to the linux kernel configuration menu. Here you must change a few items for your configuration if your using my kernel config. My config is sutable for most systems however it's built to run on my system.

Specifically you must change the following items to suit your configuration.

Code:
1) Processor type and features - mainly be concerned with your cpu type here
2) ATA/ATAPI/MFM/RLL support for storage controllers
3) Networking support - NIC Device drivers are your main concern Use Modules =]
4) Character devices - agpgart and agp chipset type, dri driver ( if required)
    Note that if your using an nvidia videocard it's best to leave the character devices as-is
5) Sound support ~>> Advanced Linux Sound Architecture ~~> Pci devices
     Set the correct driver module for your soundcard here. use a module as the alsa-utils package demands that modules be present for your system to use the startup script correctly
6) USB support - Three primary items to be concerned with here...
     If you have usb2  add the EHCI module as <*>
      the output recieved from lspci is important here as you cannot have both ohci AND uhci both included. you much choose one or the other and add it as a module
     EHCI HCD (USB 2.0) support
     OHCI HCD support
     UHCI HCD (most Intel and VIA) support

After configuring your kernel for supported devices exit from menuconfig and type the following

Code:
make && make modules modules_install install


Setting Up Hostnames and Domainnames
-------------------------------------------------
Recent baselayout changes have adjusted how hostnames and domainnames are set in gentoo linux with all architectures. The following examples will show which files need to be edited to properly set your new system's hostname and domainname.

Setting the primary hostname.

Open the following file in nano or your preferred console based editor changing the localhost variable for what suits your personal taste or requirements to set the primary system hostname.
Code:
cat /etc/conf.d/hostname
# /etc/conf.d/hostname
# $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo-src/rc-scripts/etc/conf.d/hostname,v 1.2.4.1 2005/02/19 02:13:53 vapier Exp $

# Set to the hostname of this machine
HOSTNAME="localhost"


Setting the primary domainname and nisdomainname.

Open the following file in nano or your preferred console based editor changing the DNSDOMAIN and NISDOMAIN variables for what suits your personal taste or requirements to set the primary system domanname and nisdomainname.
Code:
cat /etc/conf.d/domainname.
# /etc/conf.d/domainname
# $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo-src/rc-scripts/etc/conf.d/domainname,v 1.1.4.1 2005/02/19 02:13:53 vapier Exp $

# When setting up resolv.conf, what should take precedence?
# If you wish to always override DHCP/whatever, set this to 1.
OVERRIDE=1

# To have a proper FQDN, you need to setup /etc/hosts and /etc/resolv.conf
# properly (domain entry in /etc/resolv.conf, and FQDN in /etc/hosts).
#
DNSDOMAIN="domain.tld"

# This only set what /bin/hostname returns.  If you need to setup NIS, meaning
# what /bin/domainname returns, please see:
#
#   http://www.linux-nis.org/nis-howto/HOWTO/
#
NISDOMAIN="nis.domain.tld"

Next you must edit /etc/hosts to allow linux to set uour hostnames while no nameservers are reachable. ipv6 will be here in the next few years. Dont get too cozy.. ipv4 will be depreciated and you will be assimilated. Here's an example of what /etc/hosts should contain...

Code:
# /etc/hosts: This file describes a number of hostname-to-address
# mappings for the TCP/IP subsystem. It is mostly
# used at boot time, when no name servers are running.
# On small systems, this file can be used instead of a
# "named" name server. Just add the names, addresses
# and any aliases to this file...
# $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo-src/rc-scripts/etc/hosts,v 1.7 2002/11/18 19:39:22 azarah Exp $
#

127.0.0.1 hostname.domainname.tld hostname localhost.localdomain localhost

# IPV6 versions of localhost and co
::1 ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
fe00::0 ip6-localnet
ff00::0 ip6-mcastprefix
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters
ff02::3 ip6-allhosts


Setting drivers to load at boot network load at boot
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I allways build tons of modules wherever possible unless doing so is not advisable. A dynamically loading system will save valuble memory address space in your system kernel. lsmod is your eyes into a running modular linux system but it's only usable with modules. NIC modules are an excellent example. Adding them to insmod at boot is required as hotplug doesn't load nic drivers dynamically possibly leaving you with an booted system without network.

Code:
echo foo >>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6
**substitute "foo" with your correct nic module name**


Creating a Second Initscript If You Have 2 nic's and Starting the Second at Boot (optional)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Code:
cd /etc/init.d
ln -s net.lo net.eth1
rc-update add net.eth1 default
echo foo >>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6
**substitute "foo" with your correct nic module name**


Setting up the network config file for first reboot
--------------------------------------------------------
with the new baselayout thats installed in 2005.1 the network config file has defaulted to an ominously bare file. Some may notice the note on top stating the following
Code:
cat /mnt/gentoo/etc/conf.d/net
# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
# scripts in /etc/init.d.  To create a more complete configuration,
# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).


The gurus in the releng herd have allways been secretly installing full current example config's in your system where they are appropriate. Another little known fact of gentoo linux. The one were concerned with is mentioned in the example above. So what do we do with it you may be wondering? Well.. copy it and configure the variables you require to have your network start on boot.
Code:
cp /etc/conf.d/net.example /etc/conf.d/net


Gentoo linux no longer defaults to installing dhcpcd as a system package so i've added it to the oneliner as an extra package. Since most users have the simplicity of a dhcp network you merely need to uncomment one variable in /etc/conf.d/net in the dhcp section about half way through the file. For a static configuration see the section on ifconfig
Code:
#-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
# DHCP
# DHCP can be provided by dhcpcd, dhclient, udhcpc or pump
#
# dhcpcd:   emerge net-misc/dhcpcd
# dhclient: emerge net-misc/dhcp
# udhcpc:   emerge net-misc/udhcp
# pump:     emerge net-misc/pump

# If you have more than one DHCP client installed, you need to specify which
# one to use - otherwise we default to dhcpcd if available
#modules=( "udhcpc" ) # to select udhcpc over dhcpcd
#
# Notes:
# - dhcpcd, udhcpc and pump send the current hostname
#   to the DHCP server by default
# - dhcpcd does not daemonize when the lease time is infinite
# - udhcp-0.9.3-r3 and earlier does not support getting NTP servers
# - dhclient does not support getting NTP servers
# - pump does not support getting NIS servers
# - DHCP tends to erase any existing device information - so add
#   static addresses after dhcp if you need them

# Regardless of which DHCP client you prefer, you configure them the
# same way using one of following depending on which interface modules
# you're using.
config_eth0=( "dhcp" )

# For passing custom options to dhcpcd use something like the following.  This
# example reduces the timeout for retrieving an address from 60 seconds (the
# default) to 10 seconds.
#dhcpcd_eth0="-t 10"

# dhclient, udhcpc and pump don't have many runtime options
# You can pass options to them in a similar manner to dhcpcd though
#dhclient_eth0="..."
#udhcpc_eth0="..."
#pump_eth0="..."

# To set options for dhclient, you need to have an /etc/dhclient.conf file
# See the dhclient man page for details

# GENERIC DHCP OPTIONS
# Set generic DHCP options like so
#dhcp_eth0="release nodns nontp nonis"

# This tells the dhcp client to release it's lease when it stops and not to
# overwrite dns, ntp and nis settings when it starts. You can use any
# combination of the above options - the default is not to use any of them


Setting up a Boot Loader - Setting up grub - Now with gensplash and grub skins
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
There's nothing cooler than spock :wink: well or spock the gentoo developer's tizzight gensplash on the system you've managed to build by following this tutorial 8)
so like that bitchin splash image on the livecd? hehe so do i... and why horde it to myself and cackle and laugh alone looking at my computer boot gentoo linux for fun and kix. So here it is folks. More creature features courtesy of ali3nx

1) adding gensplash
------------------------
Code:
emerge splash-themes-livecd && splash_geninitramfs -v -g /boot/fbsplash-livecd-2005.1-1024x768 -r 1024x768 livecd-2005.1 && rc-update add splash default


The magic is done... Now you have an initrd that you must load with grub in grub.conf

2) grub.conf grub config file example
------------------------------------------
Code:
cat /boot/grub/grub.conf
#
# Grub boot menu configuration file
#
# Boot automatically after 30 secs.
timeout 30

# By default, boot the first entry.
default 0

# Fallback to the second entry.
fallback 1

splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/gentoo.xpm.gz
#
# For booting GNU/Linux
title  Gentoo-2.6.12-r7 by EliteitMinds Technologies
root (hd0,0)
kernel (hd0,0)/vmlinuz ro root=/dev/hda3 video=vesafb:ywrap,pmipal,1024x768-32@65 splash=silent,fadein,theme:livecd-2005.1 quiet CONSOLE=/dev/tty1
initrd (hd0,0)/fbsplash-livecd-2005.1-1024x768
# note make certain the kernel line does not wrap to the next line!!!!
title Gentoo-2.6.12-r7-backup by EliteitMinds Technologies
root (hd0,0)
kernel (hd0,0)/vmlinuz.old ro root=/dev/hda3 video=vesafb:ywrap,pmipal,1024x768-32@65 splash=silent,fadein,theme:livecd-2005.1 quiet CONSOLE=/dev/tty1
# note make certain the kernel line does not wrap to the next line!!!!
initrd (hd0,0)/fbsplash-livecd-2005.1-1024x768

# For installing GRUB into the hard disk
title Install GRUB into the hard disk
root    (hd0,0)
setup   (hd0)

# Change the colors.
title Change the colors
color light-green/brown blink-red/blue


3) installing the bootsectors
---------------------------------
Code:
grub
grub> root (hd0,0)
grub> setup (hd0)
grub> quit
cd /boot/grub
nano -w /boot/grub/menu.lst

copy the text from the code section above for menu.lst and paste it into the console or type it. It's gonna have to do for a couple days till i can get my config's uploaded to a shell.
Last but not least ensure all your symlinks match and Eliteitminds Technologies gets the credit for the beautiful config files =]

4) selecting and installing a custom gentoo linux labelled grub skin
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
I recently found a pimp grub splash themed just for gentoo linux that everyone and there momma's momma needs for gentoo boxen =] That would include users of this tutorial.
Code:
cd /boot/grub && wget http://www.schultz-net.dk/downloads/grub/gentoo.xpm.gz


Setting Up fstab
-------------------------
Tis is a step you do not want to do before installing grub... for some reason grub has a spaz attack and calls die() when it finds an fstab in completed fashion.

Code:
nano -w /etc/fstab


Here's mine:

Code:
# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
# $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo-src/rc-scripts/etc/fstab,v 1.14 2003/10/13 20:03:38 azarah Exp $
#
# noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
# needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
# efficiency). It's safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
# switch between notail and tail freely.

# <fs> <mountpoint> <type> <opts> <dump/pass>

# NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
/dev/hda1 /boot reiserfs noauto,notail 1 1
/dev/hda3 / reiserfs notail 0 1
/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/dvdrw iso9660 user,noauto,ro,exec 0 0
/dev/cdroms/cdrom1 /mnt/cdrw iso9660 user,noauto,ro,exec 0 0
#/dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy auto noauto 0 0

# NOTE: The next line is critical for boot!
none /proc proc defaults 0 0

# glibc 2.2 and above expects tmpfs to be mounted at /dev/shm for
# POSIX shared memory (shm_open, shm_unlink).
# (tmpfs is a dynamically expandable/shrinkable ramdisk, and will
# use almost no memory if not populated with files)
# Adding the following line to /etc/fstab should take care of this:

none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid 0 0


Setting hdparm for use after boot
-----------------------------------------
We've gone throught he procedures above for utilizing hdparm for obtaining the fastest i/o transfer modes for your hard drive however the changes made only affect the livecd's running kernel therefore we should setup hdparm for the installation that you have created so that performance is maintained after booting into your running system. Allot of very useful options for Gentoo Linux dwell in /etc/conf.d This time we are to be concerned with the contents of /etc/conf.d/hdparm Below you will see an example of hdparm's config file. Change to suit the layout of your disks for your system appropriately. Each device may need the modes set for your systems hardware configuration. Here's a typical configuration for a system with one cdrom and hard disk. You can safely skip this step if using sata or scsi.

Code:
cat /etc/conf.d/hdparm
# Copyright 1999-2004 Gentoo Foundation
# Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2
# $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo-x86/sys-apps/hdparm/files/hdparm-conf.d.3,v 1.2 2004/09/06 02:17:08 swegener Exp $

# You can either set hdparm arguments for each drive using disc*_args and cdrom*_args..
# eg.
disc0_args="-d1c3u1m16A1"
# disc1_args"-d1"
cdrom0_args="-d1c3u1"
#cdrom1_args="-d1c3u1"
# Or, you can set hdparm options for ALL drives using all_args..
# eg.
# this mimics the behavior of the current script
#all_args="-d1"


After editing the contents of /etc/conf.d/hdparm type the following command to add hdparm to the boot runlevel. I recommend boot as it will help with faster startup times.
Code:
rc-update add hdparm boot


Set Up Users
---------------
We must change the password of the root user in the installed system to ensure it's usable after booting the system and also add a user for yourself with the appropriate groups that would be required for an average desktop-server hybrid gentoo linux system. Substitute my nick with your own username or add me a shell and pm me the login should you feel generous :wink:
Code:
passwd to change root's pass
groupadd groupname && useradd username -m -k /etc/skel -g groupname -G audio,cron,wheel,portage,games -d /home/username -s /bin/bash
passwd username


Exiting Chroot and Unmounting Partitions
-----------------------------------------------
Since we used screen during our installation we will need to exit or logout twice... once to quit screen, once to exit from chroot following with unmounting the partitions used for installation and disabling swap... A "clean" shutdown is allways a good idea...

Code:
exit && exit
cd ~/
umount /mnt/gentoo/proc
umount /mnt/gentoo/boot
umount /mnt/gentoo/dev
umount /mnt/gentoo
swapoff /dev/hda2


Rebooting to your newly installed Gentoo Linux
-------------------------------------------------------

Code:
shutdown -r now


Add any other applications after rebooting to the fastest linux animal you have ever built.
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Last edited by ali3nx on Tue Jul 18, 2006 12:53 am; edited 109 times in total
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 23, 2004 7:51 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

So you may have been reading over my neat tutorial on the best that linux has to offer and your still curious...? I suppose i would be... wondering what the hell i need nptl for anyways? try this one for size and you'll see exactly where the advantages lie

Code:
Linux: Native POSIX Threading Library (NPTL)
Posted by jeremy on Friday, September 20, 2002 - 11:45

Ulrich Drepper recently announced the first public release of the Red Hat sponsored "Native POSIX Thread Library" (NPTL). He explained, "Unless major flaws in the design are found this code is intended to become the standard POSIX thread library on Linux system and it will be included in the GNU C library distribution."

One test mentioned in Ulrich's email - running 100,000 concurrent threads on an IA-32 - generated some interesting discussion. Ingo Molnar explained that with the current stock 2.5 kernel such a test requires roughly 1GB RAM, and the act of starting and stopping all 100,000 threads in parallel takes only 2 seconds. In comparison, with the 2.5.31 kernel (prior to Ingo's recent threading work), such a test would have taken around 15 minutes.

Ingo provides further details:

    "With the default split and kernel stack we can start up 94,000 threads on x86. With Ben's/Dave's patch we can have up to 188,000 threads. With a 2:2 GB VM split configured we can start 376,000 threads. If someone's that desperate then with a 1:3 split we can start up 564,000 threads."

And Ingo's response to the logical followup question, "why so many threads, the answer is because we can :)". Much of the discussion follows, and is well worth the time it takes to read...


More threads that a platform can run symultaneously the more "work" that can be completed efficiently in less time. 8)

Ulrich Drepper is a RedHat Linux developer and has also published a full draft specification paper with in depth information on "Native POSIX Thread Library" (NPTL) on his devspace here Your favorite pdf viewer is required to view this document.
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Last edited by ali3nx on Mon Dec 20, 2004 1:48 am; edited 3 times in total
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odegard
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 23, 2004 11:00 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

doesn't each thread also carry a overhead that would bog the system down?
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 23, 2004 11:08 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

one note, you seem to leave out a step in the bootstrap part.

after bootstrap you should do source /etc/profile and probably env-update. this is in the gentoo guide. not at all hard to add in there.

the NPTL guide also re-emerges glibc to get nptl in there
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PostPosted: Fri Jun 25, 2004 2:54 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I wrote up a tutorial on this not to long ago instead of merging linux-headers before bootstrap just use bootstrap-2.6.sh this will get the 2.6 headers and emerge them then compile everything against the 2.6 headers. It's best to start the stage1 with only USE="nptl" as the more you put in there the more likely it is to break. with bootstrap and emerge system you don't really have a lot of use flags available other than doc, acl and some others that are not needed unless well you want the added docs and languages. Then from stage3 when your continuing building the system add the use flags you want... it is safer that way.
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PostPosted: Mon Jul 05, 2004 6:02 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

How to bootstrap to GCC 3.4?

simply echo sys-devel/gcc -*>>/etc/portage/package.keywords before scripts/bootstrap.sh?

I want to try gcc 3.4 some day, this maybe a good guide for me, thanks!
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PostPosted: Wed Jul 07, 2004 2:41 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

is your webserver down cause im in the middle of this and i cant get the kernel configs and the grub menu -- which i need cause i dont get udev yet

could you post them here

thx
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 09, 2004 9:59 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

my apologies... :oops: I moved this week and my dns hasn't yet been updated. I'm not clear if i'll keep the same ip address for long since i'm using a different isp temporarily but your welcome to subsittute my current ip for the domain name. if you need to reach me i can be reached via ali3nx@shaw.ca i'm trying to get !ian to update my profile on the forums to reflect my current email address. http://64.180.201.50 is my current ipv4 location. I'm still tryijg to get settled and unpack my gear and my personals but i expect everything to be sorted by the beginning of next week.
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 09, 2004 2:26 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Lance wrote:
How to bootstrap to GCC 3.4?

simply echo sys-devel/gcc -*>>/etc/portage/package.keywords before scripts/bootstrap.sh?

I want to try gcc 3.4 some day, this maybe a good guide for me, thanks!


No. Add the line in package.keywords, start bootstrap-2.6.sh, once gcc 3.4 is compiled, ctrl-C, gcc-update, let it use gcc 3.4, env-update, source /etc/profile, edit the bootstrap script, so everything before (and including) emerge gcc isn't done anymore (unless you don't bother re-merging gcc once more, like if you got a fast machine), an run bootstrap. AFAIK.
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PostPosted: Mon Aug 09, 2004 4:02 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:
No. Add the line in package.keywords, start bootstrap-2.6.sh, once gcc 3.4 is compiled, ctrl-C, gcc-update, let it use gcc 3.4, env-update, source /etc/profile, edit the bootstrap script, so everything before (and including) emerge gcc isn't done anymore (unless you don't bother re-merging gcc once more, like if you got a fast machine), an run bootstrap. AFAIK.


I'm a little confused on this action. Could you show the steps in code format?
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PostPosted: Mon Aug 09, 2004 4:06 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:
/boot should be hda1 or sda1 if your using scsi


Does that mean it doesn't matter where /boot goes if it is an IDE drive?
I have just one disk and i'm trying to tri-boot. I already have XP on hda1.
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PostPosted: Tue Aug 10, 2004 5:21 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I just did an emerge sync and can't seem to find the package.keywords file. There is no /etc/portage. I do have /usr/portage though. Is the package.keywords file something you create? If so, should it really be in /usr/portage/package.keywords?
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PostPosted: Sun Aug 15, 2004 6:10 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

slydini wrote:
Quote:
No. Add the line in package.keywords, start bootstrap-2.6.sh, once gcc 3.4 is compiled, ctrl-C, gcc-update, let it use gcc 3.4, env-update, source /etc/profile, edit the bootstrap script, so everything before (and including) emerge gcc isn't done anymore (unless you don't bother re-merging gcc once more, like if you got a fast machine), an run bootstrap. AFAIK.


I'm a little confused on this action. Could you show the steps in code format?


I'll try and help the best I can...

Code:

mkdir /etc/portage
touch /etc/portage/package.keywords
echo 'sys-devel/<gcc version> ~x86' >> /etc/portage/package.keywords


Replacing <gcc version> with whichever one you'd like to use of course...

Start your bootstrap like in the handbook, except use the 2.6 bootstrap script instead of the norm, once gcc3.4 is done compile, ctrl-c to exit the bootstrap...

Code:

gcc-update
#use gcc3.4
env-update && source /etc/profile


And then either edit the bootstrap script and start it again (so you don't re-emerge parts already emerged before gcc), or just run it as is if you want to...It doesn't hurt to re-emerge gcc again, just that it will take that much longer to complete...Hopefully this helped somewhat, and others may feel free to build off/comment on it as they see fit...

:D
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PostPosted: Sun Aug 15, 2004 12:13 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:
Unmasking 2.6.x Stable linux-headers in portage
--------------------------------------------------------
mkdir /etc/portage && echo "sys-kernel/linux-headers -*" >> /etc/portage/package.keywords

This will allow the default 2.4.x headers to be removed favoring building toolchain for a 2.6 linux kernel *using* 2.6.x linux-headers


AFAIK there is s.th. missing. To use the 2.6er linux-headers isn´t it "sys-kernel/linux26-headers -*" ??
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PostPosted: Sun Aug 15, 2004 12:23 pm    Post subject: gcc34-x86-2004.2 profile, NPTL and a 2.6 kernel Reply with quote

Also have look here:

This guide is intended to help those wanting to build a Gentoo system using the gcc34-x86-2004.2 profile,
NPTL and a 2.6 kernel

https://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=169054
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PostPosted: Mon Aug 16, 2004 2:02 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Well thanks for clearing that up. Unfortunately, I have too many nonrelated problems with my current install to even consider using gcc3.4 right now.
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PostPosted: Fri Sep 03, 2004 9:13 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I'm adding udev, ntp-client, timezone, date, and a few other slick tricks to this tut. Should be done later today

Greets, ali3nx
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PostPosted: Sat Sep 04, 2004 12:45 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Excellent! Just in time for a reinstall...
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PostPosted: Sat Sep 04, 2004 4:33 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Added hdparm Primer, cleaned up the fdisk/partitioning section, added code tags.

Thanks... I'll add reiser4 very soon =]
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PostPosted: Sat Sep 04, 2004 8:04 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

updated keywording for linux26-headers
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PostPosted: Mon Sep 06, 2004 4:29 am    Post subject: Install Reply with quote

Ali3n, install guide looks good and ill try and use it on an install but you know if i get stuck you'll have to help me.
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PostPosted: Mon Sep 06, 2004 4:33 am    Post subject: Helped with install Reply with quote

Ali3n helped me through my install and i have to say he is a master and without him i probally would still be installing it. My Gentoo runs beautifully and i love it and like i said without him i dont this would have been possible. So Ali3n thanks bro for the help.
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PostPosted: Tue Sep 07, 2004 4:05 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

added hdparm code sections. getting close to perfect :)
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PostPosted: Tue Sep 07, 2004 7:15 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

sounds interresting :)

will have a look
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PostPosted: Wed Sep 08, 2004 11:12 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Has anyone else tried this with a AMD64??? As i'm currently trying a couple of different things on my AMD64 before I settle on which one I like the best. Did you find it worked well? I'm going to try this later today. We'll give feedback on what I find.
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