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szatox
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PostPosted: Mon May 26, 2014 12:28 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

you can set static IP in /etc/hosts
you can configure your local DNS server (there is even some DNS+DHCP server that gives IP to clients and resolves their names)
you can use avahi and nss-mdns to resolve names and find services
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pmam
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PostPosted: Mon May 26, 2014 1:07 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Dear Szatox,

Quote:
you can set static IP in /etc/hosts

I already configured static IP in /etc/hosts as following:
Code:
10.0.0.6    mg_e2180.mg_dom_2180 mg_e2180 localhost

Mounting work with 10.0.0.6 - with mg_e2180 it does not work???

Thanks
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szatox
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PostPosted: Mon May 26, 2014 4:14 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

pmam wrote:

I already configured static IP in /etc/hosts as following:
Quote:
10.0.0.6 mg_e2180.mg_dom_2180 mg_e2180 localhost


Clients' /etc/hosts
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pmam
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PostPosted: Mon May 26, 2014 6:21 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Szatox,

I'm not sure I understand... Here is my client's /etc/hosts:
Code:
10.0.0.7 mg_6300.mg_dom_6300 mg_6300 localhost

I am testing the NFS sharing with this client and the server in the previous post.

Thanks
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khayyam
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PostPosted: Mon May 26, 2014 7:05 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

pmam wrote:
I'm not sure I understand... Here is my client's /etc/hosts:

pmam ... ok, so add the NFS server

Code:
10.0.0.7 mg_6300.mg_dom_6300 mg_6300 localhost
10.0.0.8 nfs.lan nfs

... test
Code:
# ping -c 1 nfs.lan
# ping -c 1 nfs

best ... khay
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pmam
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PostPosted: Mon May 26, 2014 7:23 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Dear Khay,

You meant 10.0.0.6 (not 8 ) - I added it and the test is ok.
Please explain what this addition is for?

Thanks
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khayyam
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PostPosted: Mon May 26, 2014 7:48 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

pmam wrote:
You meant 10.0.0.6 (not 8 ) - I added it and the test is ok.

pmam ... oh, thats psychic powaz for you ... of course I could guess again if you like, or choose an adjacent number to your client's IP ... I'm sure to get it :)

pmam wrote:
Please explain what this addition is for?

Take a quick look at /etc/nsswitch.conf ... you'll see "hosts: files dns", this states that in resolving hostnames it looks to "files" then "dns", /etc/hosts is such a file. So, with the above you state that 10.0.0.{N} is the host nfs/nfs.lan. Once this is added, like dns (which translates hostnames to IP addresses) the host can be addressed as "nfs" or "nfs.lan".

best ... khay
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szatox
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PostPosted: Tue May 27, 2014 12:23 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

First you show line from fstab that shows NFS server with IP 10.0.0.6.
then you show line from hosts that conatins IP10.0.0.6 and name localhost
Hence my conclusion: it's config from server's /etc/hosts.

Now, localhost should point to 127.0.0.1, that's first thing. Then, "localhost" is computer's version of "me". You never refer to remote machine as "localhost" as I don't refer to YOU as "me". Whan I say "me" it means zzatox, not pman, and when you call "localhost" you mean the pc running your session.
Anyway, we need mroe info if we are t obe of any help right now.

So, now, if you still have problems with that NFS setup we need:
IP for NFS server
IP of client machine/ client network
/etc/exports from NFS server
/etc/hosts from client
some info on what you consider your problem

then maybe we will be able to sort it out
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khayyam
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PostPosted: Tue May 27, 2014 12:37 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

szatox wrote:
then you show line from hosts that conatins IP10.0.0.6 and name localhost

szatox ... completely missed that in the above, yes, no routable address is required, it should be the loopback. Not sure what the purpose of ".mg_dom_6300" as localdomain is, particularly as it seems to be similarly named to the hostname (thats probably also an error).

/etc/hosts
Code:
127.0.0.1 mg_6300.lan mg_6300 localhost
10.0.0.6 nfs.lan nfs

best ... khay
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pmam
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PostPosted: Tue May 27, 2014 6:09 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

OK my Dears...

Thought I followed the HandBook but it is not exactly...
Yes - I made a mistake regarding the IP of localhost - Thought that if using static IP the local host address should be the static IP -
I mean: The server static IP=10.0.0.6 - So why do you call it 'remote' - for me it is local, the server - .
However according your remarks, I understand it is a mistake and I should change it 127.0.0.1 (and make some fine tunning to my logical network thinking... :) )
BTW: Now I see that static IP is defined only with /etc/conf.d/net.
But ".mg_dom_6300" suppose to be correct - I followed this line in the Handbook: dns_domain_lo="homenetwork"
and defined my Client's domain as: ".mg_dom_6300" (and my HostName as: "mg_6300") - What's wrong with that?
EDIT: Please let me know if to stay with mg_dom_6300 or to change to lan?

Here is the data been requested:

IP for NFS server=10.0.0.6
IP of client machine=10.0.0.7 / client network=10.0.0.0/24 - Is it right for configuring the whole network as a client?
/etc/exports from NFS server - /home/mg 10.0.0.0/24(fsid=0,rw,sync,no_root_squash,insecure,no_subtree_check)
/etc/hosts from client - after the last change -As you can see "127.0.0.1" showed up twice - At the beginning:
127.0.0.1 localhost
::1 localhost -
and at the end of the file - Is it right? It is also in /etc/hosts of the server.

Code:
# /etc/hosts: Local Host Database
#
# This file describes a number of aliases-to-address mappings for the for
# local hosts that share this file.
#
# In the presence of the domain name service or NIS, this file may not be
# consulted at all; see /etc/host.conf for the resolution order.
#

# IPv4 and IPv6 localhost aliases
127.0.0.1   localhost
::1      localhost

#
# Imaginary network.
#10.0.0.2               myname
#10.0.0.3               myfriend
#
# According to RFC 1918, you can use the following IP networks for private
# nets which will never be connected to the Internet:
#
#       10.0.0.0        -   10.255.255.255
#       172.16.0.0      -   172.31.255.255
#       192.168.0.0     -   192.168.255.255
#
# In case you want to be able to connect directly to the Internet (i.e. not
# behind a NAT, ADSL router, etc...), you need real official assigned
# numbers.  Do not try to invent your own network numbers but instead get one
# from your network provider (if any) or from your regional registry (ARIN,
# APNIC, LACNIC, RIPE NCC, or AfriNIC.)
#

127.0.0.1 mg_6300.mg_dom_6300 mg_6300 localhost
10.0.0.6 nfs.lan nfs


/etc/hosts from server -
Code:
# /etc/hosts: Local Host Database
#
# This file describes a number of aliases-to-address mappings for the for
# local hosts that share this file.
#
# In the presence of the domain name service or NIS, this file may not be
# consulted at all; see /etc/host.conf for the resolution order.
#

# IPv4 and IPv6 localhost aliases
127.0.0.1   localhost
::1      localhost

#
# Imaginary network.
#10.0.0.2               myname
#10.0.0.3               myfriend
#
# According to RFC 1918, you can use the following IP networks for private
# nets which will never be connected to the Internet:
#
#       10.0.0.0        -   10.255.255.255
#       172.16.0.0      -   172.31.255.255
#       192.168.0.0     -   192.168.255.255
#
# In case you want to be able to connect directly to the Internet (i.e. not
# behind a NAT, ADSL router, etc...), you need real official assigned
# numbers.  Do not try to invent your own network numbers but instead get one
# from your network provider (if any) or from your regional registry (ARIN,
# APNIC, LACNIC, RIPE NCC, or AfriNIC.)
#
127.0.0.1    mg_e2180.mg_dom_2180 mg_e2180 localhost


Now - As I wrote earlier - My simple goal is to share home directories, see and transfer files between each Linux machines connected to LAN. In order to establish this bi-directional goal - I mean - I will be able to share home directories between all machines of the local network - I need to configure each machine as server and client, as well. First I need to establish one server and one client and later on I will continue. As I wrote, At the moment, I can mount, as a client, to home directory on the server -
Since I need this mounting will be done during booting, I add this line to /etc/fstab:
Code:
10.0.0.6:/home/mg    /home/mg     nfs   rw,users  0 0


The problem - When the server is connected, this mounting is ok and the sharing is enabled - However, if the server is not connected or turned off,
the client stuck during booting, in nfs mounting stage – How to change it so it will skip, in case of server not connected?
Khay suggested this:
Quote:
pmam ... you might use autofs, the kernel automounter. This will allow you to set a '--timeout='.
-
I still did not figure out how exactly configure autofs - However, is it the only way or I can set any parameter with fstab, as well?

EDIT: I did not check if now I can mount to server with server name instead of IP - I will do it after get your reply...

Thanks
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szatox
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PostPosted: Tue May 27, 2014 10:05 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:
The server static IP=10.0.0.6 - So why do you call it 'remote' - for me it is local, the server - .

Local domain is not a local machine. When I'm looking at the Moon, It's local to Solar System (our local domia) but it's still a remote globe. There are only a few ppl who had ever had a chance to call Moon localglobe. So, your server is a remote machine as long as you are using any kind of networking to access it. If you have 2 virtual machines running on a single host and they talk over ethernet, they are remote machines for each other even though they are phisicaly in the same box. When I'm sending files from handy to pc, I have a direct controll over one of them and I refer to it as localhost, and the other is a remote machine even though is only like a feet away from my localhost.

In /etc/hosts you can only define names for static IP. You do this manualy and it doesn't adapt if anything changes - you have to fix it to keep it in sync. It's Static doesn't mean local, those 2 are independent. Almost every PC assiciated to DNS record has static IP and you don't put it in your hosts (but you can do that if you want either faster lookups or broken IP for a particular human-readable address)

Back to making NFS work:
right now you should be able to refer to nfs using it's name which is one of: "nfs", "nfs.lan". You can replace 10.0.0.6:/home/mg with nfs:/home/mg in mount command or in fstab. Doesn't mean you have to, but names are usualy more descriptive than IPs.
/etc/hosts from server is not important as clients never read it anyway.
The way it is right now, /etc/exports allows any PC with any IP from pool 10.0.0.XXX full, unrestricted access to server's /home/mg. As long as you're aware of it and it's intended, it's fine.
I'm not familiar with mounting NFS automaticaly when you want to access it, I tend to assume server is not to be shut down. Perhaps khayyam will be of more help here
/ets/hosts is usualy read from top to the first line that resolves name you requested. Repeating a single name in multiple lines is redundant and potentialy confusing for you, but not dangerous for system, so better clean it up for sake of your own convenience if you ever have to look into that file again. If you choose to leave it it will not affect your system (but over time - and with some updates - it might turn highly magic, glow at night, kick your balls or eat your cat)

Btw:
Quote:
client network=10.0.0.0/24 - Is it right for configuring the whole network as a client?

NFS is an abbreviation of No File Security, so yes, it's perfectly fine
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khayyam
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PostPosted: Tue May 27, 2014 10:12 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

pmam wrote:
Yes - I made a mistake regarding the IP of localhost - Thought that if using static IP the local host address should be the static IP - I mean: The server static IP=10.0.0.6 - So why do you call it 'remote' - for me it is local, the server

pmam ... as a sentance this is really hard to understand, you're switching contexts willy-nilly without really understanding what the terms mean. Szatox tried to provide an analogy of "me, you, I, etc" to outline how this terminology works, but it doesn't seem to have hit its mark. Anyhow, I'll try to make the terms absolutely explicit and so provide you with some method of understanding what *we* mean.

localhost <= every host is "localhost" to itself, it means "this computer". This is also called the "loopback" as its a TCP/IP network that operates *entirely* within the confines of each individual host. It consists of the network 127.0.0.0/8 (ipv4) but these are not routable addresses, anything sent to that address will "loopback". When querying "localhost", it should return the loopback address, 127.0.0.1

localdomain <= this describes the "local network", this will consist of an IP address space reserved for "local area networks" (LAN), 10.0.0.0/8 (which you're using) is such a reserved address space. "localdomain" could be ".lan", ".local", ".fluffy", or whatever, as this is just a name for the domain. Some local networks provide DNS entries for these addresses, but many don't. As I showed above "files" is before "dns" so /etc/hosts can be used to provide the mapping between a name and an IP address.

hostname.localdomain <= this describes the "host" and "domain" on a "local area network". They describe only "local area" addresses but are much the same as addresses on the internet, though ".lan", ".local", or what-have-you, function more like "tld" ("Top Limited Domain" ... ie, .com, .org, .net, etc).

So for "this computer" the following are synonmous: localhost, hostname, 127.0.0.1, hostname.lan, hostname.local, etc ... dependent on whats defined in /etc/hosts. For "this computer", the following relate to other computers on the lan: host1, host2, host1.lan, host2.lan, 10.0.0.6, 10.0.0.8 ... again, dependent on what's defined in /etc/hosts (or in DNS if such entries exist).

When you speak about "server", this too is "localhost", at least as far as loopback is concerned, but from the clients perspective its 10.0.0.6 or host1.localdomain ... again, dependent on what's defined in /etc/hosts on the client machine (or in DNS if such entries exist).

pmam wrote:
But ".mg_dom_6300" suppose to be correct - I followed this line in the Handbook: dns_domain_lo="homenetwork" and defined my Client's domain as: ".mg_dom_6300" (and my HostName as: "mg_6300") - What's wrong with that? EDIT: Please let me know if to stay with mg_dom_6300 or to change to lan?

No, ".mg_dom_6300" is incorrect, because it is not ment to define the "hostname" but the "localdomain", also dns_domain_lo="homenetwork" is used only if DNS is providing this mapping between IP's and domain names on the LAN.

pmam wrote:
Code:
127.0.0.1 mg_6300.mg_dom_6300 mg_6300 localhost
10.0.0.6 nfs nfs.lan

Code:
127.0.0.1 mg_e2180.mg_dom_2180 mg_e2180 localhost

Besides the fact that you have two entries where there need only be one, and you define "localhost" (on the client) to have the lan IP and not the loopback address, here we can see the "localdomain" is different for both the client and the server.

client:
Code:
127.0.0.1 mg_6300.lan mg_6300 localhost
10.0.0.6 mg_e2180.lan mg_e2180

server:
Code:
127.0.0.1 mg_e2180.lan mg_e2180 localhost
10.0.0.7 mg_6300.lan mg_6300

... test
Code:
# hostname -f
mg_6300.lan
# ping -c 1 mg_e2180.lan
# ping -c 1 mg_e2180
# ping -c 1 10.0.0.6

best ... khay
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pmam
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PostPosted: Wed May 28, 2014 6:47 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Dear Khay,

Your detailed explanation is in the right place and really needed for me (and hope for others...) - each line you write worth me a few hours of wondering in the @world' :)

Gentoo's HandBook probably assumes that user already well familiar with networking - Actually, it is not common that someone like me wakes up one morning and say to himself: Ah, let's install Gentoo... :) However, I think it is a good idea - During Gentoo's installation, thanks to yours helpful tips, I learnt a lot of Linux and networking - It is not easy, but worth.

[quote]localhost <= every host is "localhost" to itself, it means "this computer".
OK, now I see - according your explanation I may say that local host address (127.0.0.1) is the address of the Ethernet adaptor, and using for loop-back and self testing of the adaptor itself - It makes separation between the adaptor address and the host name's IP address in the local network (10.0.0.0/24) - Hope it is quite right...

I understand all of your explanation except of the domain's name: If I can choose any domain name (except identical to host name) why can not use: "mg_dom_6300"?
EDIT: I think finally understand: It is a mistake to call a domain with a name that refer to one of the hosts - Domain name is common to all hosts, but not associated to one of them - Right?
Anyway, no problem to change it to "lan" - But what to do with this line: dns_domain_lo="homenetwork" - delete it?
Also, if we already talking about it...please inform me with a link regarding HowTo DNS - I think it is a good idea to be familiar with...

I am going to make your suggested changes and let you now the output...

Thanks a lot!
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But don't touch the streets, Ah, That's NO, NO, NO!
The streets are our @world's compilable kernel ...”


Last edited by pmam on Wed May 28, 2014 1:04 pm; edited 1 time in total
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PostPosted: Wed May 28, 2014 7:52 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Dear Szatox,

Sorry, I missed your last post... All my previous compliments are for you , as well...
Quote:
it might turn highly magic, glow at night, kick your balls or eat your cat

Since I do not have a cat.. I am worry about the others :)

Quote:
The way it is right now, /etc/exports allows any PC with any IP from pool 10.0.0.XXX full, unrestricted access to server's /home/mg. As long as you're aware of it and it's intended, it's fine.

Yes - It's my intention.


Dear Khay,

OK - I have done all changes, according your tips, and the testing is ok.
Now I need to solve the mounting problem in the booting stage with Autofs - need to find out how exactly use it and write down the right paramters.
Also, need to add configurations, so each machine will be server & client as well.
Please let me know what to do with this line: dns_domain_lo="homenetwork" - delete it?

Thanks you all
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khayyam
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PostPosted: Wed May 28, 2014 1:07 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

pmam wrote:
khayyam wrote:
localhost <= every host is "localhost" to itself, it means "this computer".

OK, now I see - according your explanation I may say that local host address (127.0.0.1) is the address of the Ethernet adaptor, and using for loop-back and self testing of the adaptor itself - It makes separation between the adaptor address and the host name's IP address in the local network (10.0.0.0/24) - Hope it is quite right...

pmam ... no, the loopback has no relation to the network adaptor, even if a machine has no physical network device "lo" (loopback) would still be available/needed.

Code:
# ip addr show dev lo
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 brd 127.255.255.255 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

... note the "link" has no physical hardware address (MAC address) ... its "00:00:00:00:00:00".

Code:
# netstat -apn | grep 127.0.0 |tr -s ' '
tcp 0 0 127.0.0.2:53 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 2166/dnscrypt-proxy
tcp 0 0 127.0.0.1:25 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 1215/master
udp 0 0 127.0.0.1:53 0.0.0.0:* 16278/unbound
udp 0 0 127.0.0.2:53 0.0.0.0:* 2166/dnscrypt-proxy

... and like a physical device (ie, eth0, wlan0, br0, etc) it provides TCP/IP networking.

pmam wrote:
I understand all of your explanation except of the domain's name: If I can choose any domain name (except identical to host name) why can not use: "mg_dom_6300"?

You could use any name you like, you can use a different "localdomain" for each host (as you did), but this somewhat defeats the point. We provide the same "localdomain" for each host as they exist on the same LAN, its a question of consistancy. Just like "forums" is part of the "gentoo.org" domain, hostname.localdomain is part of ".localdomain" (be that ".lan", ".local", or whatever it might be).

pmam wrote:
Anyway, no problem to change it to "lan" - But what to do with this line: dns_domain_lo="homenetwork" - delete it?

Well, "homenetwork" is only correct if this is your "localdomain", you probably want dns_domain_lo="lan" but I've never felt the need to asign dns_domain_lo.

pmam wrote:
Also, if we already talking about it...please inform me with a link regarding HowTo DNS - I think it is a good idea to be familiar with...

Not sure what you're requesting, its a big subject ...

best ... khay
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pmam
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PostPosted: Wed May 28, 2014 4:49 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Dear Khay,

As you can see in my previous post, I figured out myself, a few minutes before getting your additional explanation regarding domain name: :)
Quote:
EDIT: I think finally understand: It is a mistake to call a domain with a name that refer to one of the hosts - Domain name is common to all hosts, but not associated to one of them - Right?

Yes - You are right - It was not a good name for domain.

OK - After your last examples, regarding loopback, it is much clear!

Now everything regarding my goal of NFS is OK, except the auto mounting during the booting:
I followed the HowTo of Autofs but it is not perform the mounting... On the other hand I found in google this link:
https://www.digitalocean.com/community/articles/how-to-set-up-an-nfs-mount-on-ubuntu-12-04
And as you can find there this next quote that shows a timeout parameter (as far as I can see) for fstab:
Code:
12.34.56.789:/home  /mnt/nfs/home   nfs      auto,noatime,nolock,bg,nfsvers=3,intr,tcp,actimeo=1800 0 0
12.34.56.789:/var/nfs  /mnt/nfs/var/nfs   nfs     auto,noatime,nolock,bg,nfsvers=3,intr,tcp,actimeo=1800 0 0

I tried to configure this way however still not work - If it is right then i can use it instead of Autofs...
Do you familiar with fstab timeout?

Thanks
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But don't touch the streets, Ah, That's NO, NO, NO!
The streets are our @world's compilable kernel ...”
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PostPosted: Mon Jun 02, 2014 11:51 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

OK my dears...

I decided to give up with the booting mounting of NFS - Maybe later on I will find out what is wrong in my configuration.
At the moment I can manually mount to other machine and see and transfer files whenever I would like to - it is good enough.
I could see between the lines that you quite do not like the idea of permanent mounting NFS -
Maybe due to security issues and /or others, so maybe I need to listen to you... :)

Thanks
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szatox
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PostPosted: Mon Jun 02, 2014 8:43 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

My NFS server simply tends to be online every single time I need it so I never bothered with dynamic mount there. It is insecure, particularly from server's point of view, as there is really no authentication. (You odn't log into NFS, you just connect from some IP and you present your remote UID, which is interpreted by server as local user with the same UID - extremaly stupit design.) It's still pretty convenient though, so don't hesitate in private. Even though in publick it turns a trouble-waiting-to-happen - and if you ever tried I bet it wouldn't have to wait for long
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