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HydroSan
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 08, 2004 2:24 am    Post subject: How-To: General GNOME Setup Guide Reply with quote

Here is a simple Guide on how to get a fully functional GNOME 2.6 setup using Gentoo, which should suffice for just about anything you have to do. I made this guide just to be able to help others wanting to try out Linux, and use GNOME, the side-runner to the K Desktop Environment (KDE). This is using my own preferable software which I've tried and like, but you may subtitute anything you wish.

Who should read this guide? Anyone who is newer or intermediate to Linux, or wants to try out GNOME. GNOME is a nice, stable and fully-featured Desktop Environment in itself, but there are many things lacking in it. Including some tweaks that could make life a little easier.

Prerequisits: A running Linux system (doesn't matter if you have X installed or not). Something around 500MHz and 128MB of RAM. A good hard drive, and preferably a good sound card too.

Lets start from the command line and USE flags. I'm assuming that you're going to be working on a clean system with no Desktop Environment installed. Having KDE and GNOME on the system typically creates bloat, and is generally undesirable. So what our USE flags want to have inside, is...
Code:
USE=”(other stuff)... gnome gtk gtk2 gtkhtml esd ... -kde -qt -arts ...(other stuff)”


This will disable most KDE-enabled programs from being installed by default. (However, if you attempt to emerge a package that has KDE as a direct dependancy, then you'll see it wanting to install kdelibs, aRts, QT, and a bunch of other stuff. So be careful. :))

EDIT: If you want to make sure it'll never install anything that depends on QT, do:
Code:
echo "x11-libs/qt">>/etc/portage/package.mask

It will hard-mask it so it'll never be installed. Thanks for reminding me.

An example of my USE flags is as follows.
Code:
USE="moznocompose moznoirc mng wmf gimpprint matroska 3dnow ldap dv mjpeg nptl dga X -Xaw3d aalib acl acpi -afs aim alsa -altivec -apm -arts -atlas audiofile avi -berkdb bidi bonobo caps -cdr cjk crypt cups curl -debug -dedicated -directfb divx4linux -doc -dvb dvd -dvdr -emacs encode -esd -ev6 fastcgi fbcon -firebird flac foomaticdb freewnn gd gdbm -ggi gif gnome -gphoto2 gpm -gps -gstreamer gtk gtk2 gtkhtml icq imagemagick imlib -ipv6 jabber -jack java jikes joystick jpeg -kde lcms ldsp libwww -lirc mad -matrox memlimit mikmod mmx motif mozilla mpeg mpi msn -nas ncurses odbc offensive oggvorbis opengl oscar -oss pam -pcmcia -pda pdflib perl plotutils png ppds prelude python -qt quicktime readline ruby samba sasl scanner sdl snmp -socks5 speex spell sse ssl -svga szip tcltk tcpd tetex theora tiff truetype unicode usb videos wxwindows xml xml2 xmms xosd xv xvid yahoo zlib x86"

You can (somewhat) clearly see -qt, -arts and -kde defined, whilst gnome, gtk, gtk2 and gtkhtml are left postitive. The most of the flags are avaliable in the (INSERT LINK!!!) Gentoo Portage Guide, and the other ones I've added are as follows:

moznocompose – Makes Mozilla (which will be compiled with 'emerge gnome' due to the 'mozilla' flag) not compile Composer Support. Cuts loading time.

moznoirc – Cuts IRC support. We'll look at alternative GTK+ IRC clients later.

mng/wmf – Support for obscure formats in GIMP that I'll probably never use.

gimpprint – Printing/CUPS support in GIMP.

matroska – The .MKV video format. It is similar to .OGM, but allows MP3 audio tracks instead of OGG.

mjpeg – Motion-JPEG video support in FFMPEG. Generally good to have if you do video editing. :)

dv – DV support in FFMPEG.

nptl – Native Posix Threading Library. Lets Threaded applications have multiple threads and run faster (e.g: Java.) This is compiled into glibc, and is generally better to set during Bootstrap.

Also, just for reference, my CFLAGS are:
Code:
CFLAGS="-O2 -march=athlon-xp -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -mno-push-args -maccumulate-outgoing-args -fprefetch-loop-arrays -mmmx -m3dnow"


And my system specs are:
AthlonXP 2500+ Barton
1GB DDR400
ASUS A7V600
nVidia GeForceFX 5600 256MB
SoundBlaster Audigy2
60GB+120GB hard drives.
LG DVD-ROM 16x

Chapter One: Overview of software.

Lets look at some of the software we're going to be installing, and the alternatives avaliable to that software that you might be interested in. (Forgive me if I forget anything and feel free to post some of your favourites! - I'll be glad to add them to the lists.)

Web Stuff:
Mozilla 1.7 – A fully featured web suite with Broswer, Mail Client, Calendar, IRC client, Composer, and little things that make it nice. This is pretty much the One True Browser for most people, and will get you most anywhere.

Mozilla Firefox – A fully featured Browser-Only version of Mozilla which is significantly smaller and contains some nice things. Mozilla Firefox is essencially the Striped-Down version of Mozilla Regluar.

Mozilla Thunderbird – Already have a broswer, such as Epiphany (which is included by default in GNOME), and don't want Mozilla or Mozilla Firefox? Thunderbird is the sister to Firefox, which is Mail-Client. Though combining Mozilla Firefox and Mozilla Thunderbird isn't bad either, as you still save lots of resources with the two.

Epiphany – Included in GNOME and (If I Recall Correctly) based on the Gecko Engine, which is parallel to Mozilla. It is a little leaner and nice if you don't want to have to compile or install anything else.

Links – A console-based browser which is good to have when X suddenly implodes under its own weight. ;)

gFTP – My favourite FTP client. It is generally good for just about anything, and has a nice interface. It's built for GTK.

GAIM – GTK+ AOL Instant Messanger client. It has been in development for a few years now, and is currently very nice and supports most things regular AIM does. Unfortunately, no Video/Audio support YET, but they're working on that.

XCHAT – A nice IRC client which is often refered to as the Open Source mIRC. It has a nice interface and is production-ready.

Azureus BitTorrent – A Java-based, queueable BitTorrent client. With NPTL enabled, it is quite speedy and nice. If you don't like Java, there is always...

BitTornado – Similar to the original client, it is light-weight and (IIRC) wxWindows-based. It offers Upload and Download capping so your connection doesn't get flooded; as does Azureus.

Multimedia:
Mplayer – A media player which will play just about ANYTHING you throw at it. You may need to get some libraries first (libdvd*, libmatroska) to play everything, but that goes without saying. We'll cover that later.

XINE – I used Xine when I first got Linux and it's gotten much better since then. Support nearly everything Mplayer does and has slightly better video driver support for DVD's. (I say SLIGHT.) It is broken up into two parts – xine-lib and xine-ui. The UI is similar to Mplayers' Gmplayer and Kmplayer frontends.

XMMS – An almost exact but good clone of Winamp. The standard audio player for nearly everything. When combined with various plugins, it will play any audio you throw at it.

Totem - GNOME based frontend for xine-lib. Supports GNOME-VFS (does xine-ui? I've never tried, although xine-lib does have a gnome USE flag) *added by superjaded*

Rhythmbox - GNOME based audio player that is somewhat of a clone of iTunes. Supports shoutcast and GNOME-VFS. *added by superjaded*

Imaging:
The GIMP – Open Source image editor. Often referred to as the Open Source Photoshop, 2.0 is excellent, but may take a little getting used to. It is GTK based, and will fit nicely in with GNOME.

Games:
GNOME Games – GNOME itself comes with a whole slew of games. They are enjoyable, but far from cutting-edge. Lets look at a few.

BzFlag – An OpenGL-based Online Tank Game in which you play with others in either traditional Deathmatch-style, Team Deathmatch, or Capture The Flag. A nice favourite of mine that'll run on just about anything.

TuxRacer – An OpenGL racing game in which you race a penguin down a slippery slope to the finish. Very fun and enjoyable.

SuperTux – A Super Mario type game in which you play Tux blasting through enemies.

Unreal Tournament 2004 – This is a commercial game, obviously, but is excessively enjoyable with excellent performance on Linux. First-person shooter in which you can play online with others or alone on Single Player.

Office Stuff:
OpenOffice – A great office suite. Contains most things Microsoft Office does, and supports 90% of .doc variants including it's own XML-based file type. It takes a -long- time to compile, so generally, we want to use the Binary version of this, which is also avaliable.

Accessories:
Xscreensaver – Tons of screensavers that are much better than Redmond has to offer. ;)

Ximian-Artwork – GNOME themes that (IIRC) were included in RedHat. Very nice, and also includes some XMMS stuff.

XMMS-themes – A collection of nice themes from abroad for XMMS.

Mplayerplug-in – Streaming Media support in Mozilla and other browsers.

Gimpprint – CUPS support for The GIMP.

That should conclude the software we will be installing.


Chapter Two: Installing the software.

This is going to take a while, obviously, so when we start compiling, make sure you've got tons of eyedrops and JOLT to keep your eyes glued to the GCC output for the five hours it took me to install all this software.

Now, we can install this software all at once, or in different stages. Remember that just doing 'emerge <package1> <package2>' will emerge both packages fine. So we can either do things the slow way (installing things as we go), or the fast way (letting it all install at once while we sleep. Or something.) I prefer the fast way, so I'm going to show what I usually do after a bootstrap.

Code:
emerge -p xorg-x11 libdvdcss libdvdread libdvdplay libdvdnav libmatroska gnome mplayer xmms xmms-themes ximian-artwork azureus-bin gftp xchat gaim gimp-print gimp bzflag tuxracer supertux xscreensaver openoffice-bin mplayerplug-in


EDIT: Fixed gimpprint typo.

Here's some of the extra stuff I've installed:
libdvd* - DVD libraries so I can view DVD's in Mplayer or Xine. You can take this out if you don't need it.

libmatroska - .mkv video support in Mplayer. If you have files with the .mkv file format, use this. Otherwise, you can ignore it.

xorg-x11 – This is the X.Org Xserver. I use it because it's more recent. But you can leave this out if you prefer Xfree or don't want an 'unstable' X server (although IMO this is more stable than the old Xfree 4.3.0. ;))

Now, here's something you should know. I always run an full ACCEPT_KEYWORDS=”~x86” system. This means all of the packages on my computer are marked as 'testing'. Though I can assure you I've had Zero problems using a Full ~x86 system, it may not be the same for you. Subtitute packages as necessary if you don't want to live on the edge. :D To use ~x86 and testing packages, just add:
Code:
ACCEPT_KEYWORDS=”~x86”

To your make.conf, or for individual packages, do:
Code:
ACCEPT_KEYWORDS=”~x86” emerge <package>

I personally have it in my make.conf. If you have it in your make.conf, every package you emerge will always be ~x86.

Once you've checked the packages with -p and | less, just take them out and hit enter. Then watch it go. Come back in a few hours, and see where it's at.

Once installed, proceed to edit your /etc/rc.conf and add XSESSION=”gnome” and DISPLAYMANAGER=”gdm”.

Chapter Three: Starting up GNOME.

Once you start up X, you should see a fancy login screen with Larry The Cow in the background as default. Log in, and check out your new GNOME desktop! Pretty spiffy, huh? Well, it's still raw, and needs a lot of tweaking. So lets to that. Open up the 'Applications' menu, and poke around a little, and test out some of the software. You'll notice some of the software like bzFlag isn't already there in the menu, but those can be added later, and we'll do that.

First, lets fix those MIME types. By default, the applications which SHOULD (or which we want) to run certain files don't in GNOME. But this is easily fixed. Just go to:

Applications -> Desktop Preferences -> Advanced -> File Types and Programs.

Click on the pull-down menu, and select the file type you want. Most documents and such are already assigned correctly, but Multimedia isn't. So lets fix the Audio and Video categories.

Assuming you want XMMS to open all Audio, just click on a file type, and then 'Edit', and punch 'xmms' into 'Program To Run' for Audio. For video, do the same, and punch 'gmplayer' into the 'Program To Run' space. After your done, close off, and check by trying to open up a file. It should be fine.

Chapter Four: General Tweaks.

To change your theme to something a little sexier, go to:

Applications -> Desktop Preferences -> Theme.

Select which one you like the best!

To add a launcher to your menu, select which menu you want to add the launcher to, and right click inside of it. Then, click on Entire Menu -> Add New Item To This Menu. An icon, type in a name, and the command you want to execute (for bzFlag it would just be 'bzflag'.) You can do this in all menu's, and you can also delete unwanted clutter by right clicking and 'Remove This Item'.

And after that, you should be all set with a fully-functional GNOME-based system that is good for most anything.

A reminder that this is not meant to be a full GNOME guide, and some things might be missing. It's meant to be for people wanting to get a nice setup running so they can enjoy and test out new software. Power users can generally ignore this.

Superjaded: Thanks for the software recommendations. How could I forget Totem?! :D :P
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Last edited by HydroSan on Sun Jul 11, 2004 4:34 pm; edited 4 times in total
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 08, 2004 6:49 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

A few additions I would add to some of the software lists:

Multimedia
Totem - GNOME based frontend for xine-lib. Supports GNOME-VFS (does xine-ui? I've never tried, although xine-lib does have a gnome USE flag)
Rhythmbox - GNOME based audio player that is somewhat of a clone of iTunes. Supports shoutcast and GNOME-VFS.

Internet

There is a GNOME Frontend to BitTorrent lying around the forum (called gnome-btdownload) for those who don't mind creeping into the world of portage overlays. Not quite as featureful as Azureus or even BitTornado, but it follows the HIG.

Also, your install statement can be HORRIBLY toned down because of portage's automatic dependancy grabbing functions. I'd really prefer something like --

Code:
emerge xorg-x11 gnome mplayer totem azureus-bin gftp xchat gaim gimpprint gimp mplayerplug-in


The things it needs (e.g. libdvd*, libmatroska and company) will automatically be pulled in by the programs the libraries are depended on.

I will also STRONGLY recommend against using the method outlined in your post to do per-package ACCEPT_KEYWORDS. This is VERY deprecated and it is preferred that you use package.keywords (check man portage for more info)

I can also wholeheartedly recommend getting the GNOME/GTK+ theme packs from the Lila thread in Gentoo chat. Features quite a few different colors, wallpapers and themes for pretty much anything you can think of. Definitely prefer my Lila-Blue over Industrial for some reason.

And something else.. by default, Nautilus will grab thumbnails of all your multimedia files (images, videos, you name it). But for some reason, if you change the association of a program to a certain mime-type (like setting gmplayer to be the default player for AVI files), it will seemingly break thumbnailing for that mime-type. The solution to this is actually pretty simple. Kill X and get back into the console, then edit a file called ~/.gnome/user.keys (not, not .gnome2, .gnome) and you should see an entry similiar to this:
Code:
video/x-ms-asf
        default_application_id=mplayer
        category=Video
        default_component_iid=OAFIID:Totem_PropertiesPage
        description=MS ASF video
        icon_filename=/usr/share/icons/Lila-Blue/scalable/mimetypes/gnome-mime-
video-x-ms-asf.svg
        default_action_type=application
        short_list_application_user_removals=
        short_list_application_user_additions=mplayer
        use_category_default=no


The icon_filename is the culprit. Delete every instance of that and the next time you go into GNOME, it should do thumbnailing again. Also a warning about thumbnails, they can take up A LOT of hd space if you let them. My ~/.thumbnails dir is currently 1.4Gb. o_O
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 08, 2004 1:14 pm    Post subject: Re: How-To: General GNOME Setup Guide Reply with quote

Nice guide. I'm using it in setting up my second attempt at using Gnome.

However, I do have one question. You say:
HydroSan wrote:
Having KDE and GNOME on the system typically creates bloat, and is generally undesirable.

How are you defining bloat? I realize that more hard drive space is being taken up by having both DE's installed, but given that I still have about 6 GB free on my laptop hard drive, I can afford the space.

Will the presence of both make programs run slower or hurt your system's performance in any way? If I have /etc/rc.conf set to use gdm, and start up a Gnome session, is this impacted at all by having KDE present?
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 08, 2004 1:30 pm    Post subject: Re: How-To: General GNOME Setup Guide Reply with quote

wilburpan wrote:
Nice guide. I'm using it in setting up my second attempt at using Gnome.

However, I do have one question. You say:
HydroSan wrote:
Having KDE and GNOME on the system typically creates bloat, and is generally undesirable.

How are you defining bloat? I realize that more hard drive space is being taken up by having both DE's installed, but given that I still have about 6 GB free on my laptop hard drive, I can afford the space.

Will the presence of both make programs run slower or hurt your system's performance in any way? If I have /etc/rc.conf set to use gdm, and start up a Gnome session, is this impacted at all by having KDE present?
KDE libraries and programs take an awful long time to compile, so if you're only going to use one DE, then it is advisable to pick one, as keeping two DEs up-to-date is just time consuming. But it should not affect your performance (or at least I couldn't tell a difference when I had two installed).

Also, I'd like to point out to HydroSan that there is no package "gimpprint". "gimp-print" is in portage though :P *crazy naming conventions*
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 08, 2004 2:40 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks fo posting your experience in the form of this guide. :D

Olias
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 08, 2004 3:12 pm    Post subject: Re: How-To: General GNOME Setup Guide Reply with quote

wilburpan wrote:
Nice guide. I'm using it in setting up my second attempt at using Gnome.

However, I do have one question. You say:
HydroSan wrote:
Having KDE and GNOME on the system typically creates bloat, and is generally undesirable.

How are you defining bloat? I realize that more hard drive space is being taken up by having both DE's installed, but given that I still have about 6 GB free on my laptop hard drive, I can afford the space.

Will the presence of both make programs run slower or hurt your system's performance in any way? If I have /etc/rc.conf set to use gdm, and start up a Gnome session, is this impacted at all by having KDE present?


If you attempt to run a program with Qt bindings, you will notice a huge resource spike, where kinit, aRts, the Qt library and kdelibs are loaded into your memory. It is generally undesirable in a sense that you should always use apps that are native to your DE. It's generally cleaner that way, IMO.
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 08, 2004 3:18 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

What GNOME programs have *optional* QT bindings? If something requires QT, it will be installed anyway, regardless of your USE flags. The only way to prevent *any* QT program from being installed would be to
Code:
echo "x11-libs/qt">>/etc/portage/package.mask


Or did I misunderstand you and have just engaged in the act of making a fool of myself (quite possible)?
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PostPosted: Sun Jul 11, 2004 8:37 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

MighMoS wrote:
What GNOME programs have *optional* QT bindings? If something requires QT, it will be installed anyway, regardless of your USE flags. The only way to prevent *any* QT program from being installed would be to
Code:
echo "x11-libs/qt">>/etc/portage/package.mask


Or did I misunderstand you and have just engaged in the act of making a fool of myself (quite possible)?


I totally forgot about that, actually. 8O
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PostPosted: Tue Jul 13, 2004 12:32 am    Post subject: Excessive Errrors Reply with quote

I found this guide quite helpful. I followed the official guide on gentoo.org, but i got stuck when i emerge gnome. Changing the USE variables caused the compiling to progress, but I can't complete the whole process. I get many errors about segmentation fault, or that certain programs failed to install. I'd greatly appreciate any help.

this is my make.conf file:
CFLAGS="-02 -pipe -march=athlon-tbird -fomit-frame-pointer"
CHOST="i686-pc-linux-gnu"
CXXFLAGS="${CFLAGS}"
MAKEOPTS="-j2"
USE="gtk2 gtk gtkhtml es gnome xmms -qt -kde -arts"

The segmentation fault problem usually resolves when I run emerge once again. Emerging links gave me a similar problem. I had to run emerge links about 3 times before it completely finished. Gnome keeps giving me the same error all the time. After editing the make.conf as suggested here, i was able to get a segmentation fault, before I would only get that OpenSP failed.
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PostPosted: Tue Jul 13, 2004 1:21 am    Post subject: Re: Excessive Errrors Reply with quote

lightlysleepy wrote:
I found this guide quite helpful. I followed the official guide on gentoo.org, but i got stuck when i emerge gnome. Changing the USE variables caused the compiling to progress, but I can't complete the whole process. I get many errors about segmentation fault, or that certain programs failed to install. I'd greatly appreciate any help.

this is my make.conf file:
CFLAGS="-02 -pipe -march=athlon-tbird -fomit-frame-pointer"
CHOST="i686-pc-linux-gnu"
CXXFLAGS="${CFLAGS}"
MAKEOPTS="-j2"
USE="gtk2 gtk gtkhtml es gnome xmms -qt -kde -arts"

The segmentation fault problem usually resolves when I run emerge once again. Emerging links gave me a similar problem. I had to run emerge links about 3 times before it completely finished. Gnome keeps giving me the same error all the time. After editing the make.conf as suggested here, i was able to get a segmentation fault, before I would only get that OpenSP failed.


I solved the problem. It turned out that there is a an old bug in opensp that still causes errors if not emerged by itself. Emerging gnome didnt work for me, but emerging opensp, and then emerging gnome got through the hump.
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PostPosted: Sat Jul 31, 2004 5:49 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

personally i prefer beep-media-player to xmms... basically it's xmms with gtk2 support...
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PostPosted: Sat Jul 31, 2004 11:11 pm    Post subject: desktop goodness Reply with quote

Most useful thing I've found is to symlink ~/Desktop to ~

Actually manages to make spacial nautilus kinda cool. Also encourages you to keep the top level of your homedir clean.
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PostPosted: Sun Aug 01, 2004 4:29 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

[ebuild R ] x11-wm/enlightenment-cvs-20030629 +doc +nls* 0 kB
[ebuild R ] x11-wm/evilwm-0.99.17 -motif 23 kB
[ebuild R ] x11-wm/fluxbox-0.9.9 +gnome +kde +nls +truetype -xinerama 706 kB
[ebuild R ] x11-wm/matchbox-0.7.1 -debug +jpeg* +nls* +png* 723 kB
[ebuild R ] x11-wm/metacity-2.8.1 -debug -xinerama 2,036 kB
[ebuild R ] x11-wm/openbox-3.2-r1 +nls 566 kB
[ebuild R ] x11-wm/windowmaker-0.80.2-r4 +alsa -debug +esd +gif +gnome +jpeg +kde +nls +oss +png* -xinerama 2,705 kB
[ebuild R ] x11-wm/xfce-3.8.18-r2 +arts +gnome +gtk +nls +tcltk* 5,045 kB

I also got both kde and gnome (full metapackages)

i got gnome-settings-daemon running when im not even using gnome, but it helps alot (cuz my xchat looks a hell of alot uglier w/o GTK theming

kde/gnome apps come in handy, no matter your DE of choice.........k3b is the best cd burner for begainers that i have scene, kdegames have some nice stuff to use while bored. It uses more memory, true, but to just play kastroids for a few minutes before going back to work?

and dont mask qt. having qt programs isn't going to hurt your performance any more then a tcl/tk program or a xlibs-based program would. Its kdelibs that has all the 'bloat' that lets it integrate with kde and other kde apps.

EDIT: i got this error w/ supertux:
Code:

[23:31][pts/3][joe@Athena ~] % supertux
Datadir: /usr/share/games/supertux
Warning: Unable to open the file "/home/joe/.supertux/config" for read!!!
Warning: No joysticks are available.

Error: Can't load
/usr/share/games/supertux/images/status/letters-black.png

zsh: abort      supertux
Can anyone reprodudce this? the permissions look right
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PostPosted: Mon Aug 09, 2004 9:57 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

How can I exclude mozilla browser? USE="-mozilla" emerge gnome? I just can't do it.

Thanks for this how-to :)
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PostPosted: Mon Aug 09, 2004 6:47 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

duckyhatezchat wrote:
How can I exclude mozilla browser?


net-www/mozilla is a hard dependency of net-www/epiphany, which is a base package of the "gnome" ebuild. If you don't want Mozilla, try emerging the "gnome-light" ebuild instead.
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