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chrome13
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PostPosted: Sun Feb 01, 2009 7:21 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I am working on installing a Gentoo web server. I am unable to find any good suggestions on the partitioning scheme. I have 3 drives in the server, 20.4GB and 2x 80GB. Can anyone suggest and or point me to a good up-to-date link? Thanks much!
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minor_prophets
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 04, 2009 11:23 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Will you be using lvm or will you be restricted to the 15(?) partition limit of SCSI/SATA?

Aside from Apache, what else are you planning on running on the box?
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roelof
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PostPosted: Thu Feb 05, 2009 9:15 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hello,

I have a AMD64 3500+ system.
Harddisk : 60 G.
Memory : 1G.

I'm thinking of two ways of partition.

1) 32M Boot
512 M swap.
rest root.

2) 2.5 G /
13G /usr/
771M /usr/portages
5G usr/portages/distfiles
2G /usr/src
1.1 G /var
7,9 G /var/tmp
28G /home

Which one is the best way to go ?

Roelof
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keet
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PostPosted: Sat Feb 07, 2009 3:09 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Perhaps someone can educate me on this. I have two hard discs that I want to use for Gentoo. The first is newer, 640GB with 32MB of cache. The second is older and slower, 320GB with a 16MB cache. The first hard drive will have an NTFS partition for Windows, and the second hard disc will also have an NTFS partition for my Windows user data.

Currently, my partition set is like this:
sda1 NTFS, 500GB
sda2 /boot, 100MB
sda3 swap, 4GB
sda4 / 100GB

/dev/sdb1 NTFS 320GB

I am considering this:

/dev/sda1 /boot ext2 250MB
/dev/sda2 / ext4 50GB
/dev/sda3 /home ext4 50GB
/dev/sda4 (free, just in case, maybe backup) 200GB
/dev/sda5 NTFS 340GB

/dev/sdb1 swap
/dev/sdb2 /var 40GB
/dev/sdb3 (free, just in case, maybe backup) 80GB
/dev/sdb3 NTFS 200GB

I figure that this will be good practise for one day when I set up a web server, or a firewall/router/DHCP/email server. Of course, then the partitions will probably be different because of the different use, but this is just for now. What do you recommend for my current layout?
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chrome13
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PostPosted: Tue Feb 10, 2009 8:12 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

minor_prophets wrote:
Will you be using lvm or will you be restricted to the 15(?) partition limit of SCSI/SATA?

Aside from Apache, what else are you planning on running on the box?


No LVM unless it is recommended. This is an older box so it has PATA drives but yes, I believe the limit is 15 but I didn't think I would get up that high. Apache will be it's only function. I don't see doing much else on it.
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PostPosted: Thu Feb 19, 2009 9:50 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Having just gone through a new Gentoo install for the first time for a while, I thought I'd share my experience.

I needed to squeeze the entire installation into about 20GB available on the internal disk, on a system which would dual boot with RHEL3. Storage for a lot of user data was not needed: that can be done on an external disk or NFS share. This is what I ended up with:
  • / 1GB
  • swap Shared RHEL swap
  • /boot 100MB
  • /usr 10GB
  • /home 8.9GB


I made a significant mistake here: the root (/) partition is nowhere near big enough with the default /etc/make.globals. After running out of space on the root partition when emerging xulrunner (pulled in by Mozilla-Firefox 3.0), I added the line
Code:
PORTAGE_TMPDIR=/data01

to /etc/make.conf. This put portage's temporary files on an external disk with plenty of space. I could have put them on /home equally well.

The space problems to watch for with Gentoo are:
  • /usr/src If you upgrade the kernel, you add several hundred megabytes for each version here. With only 10GB for /usr, I can easily run out of space.
  • /usr/portage/distfiles With a fairly modest set of applications, this is 1.4GB. It tends to grow while you're not looking.
  • /var/tmp The default location for portage temporary files -- which can easily grow to several gigabytes when installing common applications such as Firefox and OpenOffice.

    I used a separate /usr partition so that the first two of these problems would not freeze the sytem: all kinds of things stop working when you have / at 100%. With more disk space available, I would have made the /usr partition larger, and probably added a separate /var partition of 10-20GB to take care of the portage temporary files. This would also stop the system totally freezing when a log file gets to a totally unreasonable size (in the directory /var/log) which can happen surprisingly quickly in some circumstances.
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PostPosted: Fri Feb 27, 2009 7:58 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

My hdd it's SATA , and i boot with minimal cd , why see hda ?

cfdisk (util-linux-ng 2.13.1.1)

Disk Drive: /dev/hda
Size: 250059350016 bytes, 250.0 GB
Heads: 255 Sectors per Track: 63 Cylinders: 30401

Name Flags Part Type FS Type [Label] Size (MB)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
hda1 Boot Primary Linux ReiserFS 98.71
hda2 Primary Linux 1998.75
hda3 Primary Linux ReiserFS 10001.95
hda4 Primary Linux ReiserFS 237957.36

livecd ~ # lspci
00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation 82G33/G31/P35/P31 Express DRAM Controller (rev 10)
00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation 82G33/G31 Express Integrated Graphics Controller (rev 10)
00:1b.0 Audio device: Intel Corporation 82801G (ICH7 Family) High Definition Audio Controller (rev 01)
00:1c.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82801G (ICH7 Family) PCI Express Port 1 (rev 01)
00:1c.1 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82801G (ICH7 Family) PCI Express Port 2 (rev 01)
00:1d.0 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801G (ICH7 Family) USB UHCI Controller #1 (rev 01)
00:1d.1 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801G (ICH7 Family) USB UHCI Controller #2 (rev 01)
00:1d.2 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801G (ICH7 Family) USB UHCI Controller #3 (rev 01)
00:1d.3 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801G (ICH7 Family) USB UHCI Controller #4 (rev 01)
00:1d.7 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801G (ICH7 Family) USB2 EHCI Controller (rev 01)
00:1e.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82801 PCI Bridge (rev e1)
00:1f.0 ISA bridge: Intel Corporation 82801GB/GR (ICH7 Family) LPC Interface Bridge (rev 01)
00:1f.2 IDE interface: Intel Corporation 82801GB/GR/GH (ICH7 Family) SATA IDE Controller (rev 01)
00:1f.3 SMBus: Intel Corporation 82801G (ICH7 Family) SMBus Controller (rev 01)
02:00.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8111/8168B PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet controller (rev 02)
03:00.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL-8139/8139C/8139C+ (rev 10)
03:01.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL-8139/8139C/8139C+ (rev 10)
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Disposition96
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PostPosted: Mon Mar 23, 2009 6:13 am    Post subject: Well lets try this again. :D Reply with quote

Hello,

How is everyone today? I just thought I'd give this another go. I tried this once before, neddy was giving me a hand and so was Karlos amongst some other people, I ended up having to move, lost track of the forum, lost track of a lot of things, now I'm back, new computer, new t.v., new amount of time.

Things that have changed :

Only have one HD, no longer two so I don't know how to setup the partition...

Where do I start now? I currently have my HD split 100/500 (640GB total) the 100 is for windows and primary apps, the 500 is for games/music/movies ect. Should I re-partition and start from scratch or can I make a stable install of Gentoo from the remaining free space on the 500GB partition?

I can't even seem to find the guidebook I was reading before...

If I posted this in the wrong spot forgive me, move it and I will continue from there. :)

Regards,
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yther
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PostPosted: Mon Mar 23, 2009 6:38 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I'm only using 6.6 GiB out of 56 GiB allotted to my system drive, and that's including /var and /tmp, so I'd say it's very much within the realm of possibility for you to install Gentoo into your existing system.

100 GiB seems like quite an excessive amount of space. I would set aside 10 GiB for the system volume, maybe another 10 for temporary space (compiling OpenOffice and such), and the rest for your personal stuff, which you seem to have already allowed. I can't believe your Windows drive consumes anything close to 100 GiB, so you should be able to shrink that by quite a bit. :)

As for the Guide, just go to gentoo.org, then Documentation, and pick the Handbook for your particular architecture.

Good luck, and above all: Have fun! :D
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szczerb
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PostPosted: Mon Mar 23, 2009 6:52 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

8GB of /var/tmp is more then enough for OOo. I think the last time it didn't get (much) past 6GB.
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PostPosted: Mon Mar 23, 2009 7:47 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Merged the above three posts.
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PostPosted: Sat Apr 11, 2009 4:29 pm    Post subject: partition question Reply with quote

i got a 80 hard drive and i want to know how should i partition the hard drive for space?
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causality
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PostPosted: Sat Apr 11, 2009 5:34 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:
i got a 80 hard drive and i want to know how should i partition the hard drive for space?


You have many options for how to do this. I will make one assumption here, which is that your 80GB hard drive is either your only available storage, or the only storage you will be using for Gentoo. If that is wrong and you want to use multiple hard drives, please let me know and I'll revise my suggestion.

The problem with using multiple partitions is that you must be able to plan, ahead of time, how much space each one is going to need. I'll assume that your 80GB hard drive is /dev/sda, so the first partition is /dev/sda1, the second partition is /dev/sda2, etc. Let's just say that you create three partitions; one for "/", one for "/home", and one for "/usr". The numbers I'm about to give are completely made-up and may not be very realistic but will illustrate the point.

Code:

Device:          Mount Point          Size         Free Space
/dev/sda1       /                     60G          50G
/dev/sda2       /home                 10G          8G
/dev/sda3       /usr                  10G          3G


So what happens if you've been using the system for a long time and are beginning to fill up /home?

Code:

Device:          Mount Point          Size         Free Space
/dev/sda1       /                     60G          30GB
/dev/sda2       /home                 10G          1GB
/dev/sda3       /usr                  10G          2GB


You actually have 33GB of free space on that hard drive. However, now only 1G of that total free space is available to files residing under /home. That means that your normal user(s) can only use 1GB out of the total 33GB. If you don't actually need more room for the other two partitions, you are effectively wasting that remaining 32GB because it's not allocated to the partition that does need it. Unfortunately, the remedy for this is to repartition and that will probably involve a complete reinstallation. Sometimes you can resize partitions non-destructively (i.e. without losing all data on them) but you should never try that without a good backup and it isn't always an option.

I don't believe that the extra planning involved and the risk of getting this wrong is worthwhile when you have everything on a single hard drive anyway. In your setup, the only real benefit of multiple partitions is that you can use different mount options to enhance security. For example, you would not expect to find device files (like those residing in /dev) in a user's home directory, so you can mount it with the NODEV option to make it impossible to create such files on that partition. See the man page for "mount" for all of those options. However, if you are the only person who is going to be using your system and do not allow remote logins and the like, it doesn't make much sense to worry about that.

Where I believe multiple partitions really shine is when you also have multiple hard drives. Then you can do things like placing /var and /usr/portage on one hard drive and the rest of your system ("/") on another. That way, when you are using "emerge" all of the compilation and related activity happens on one hard drive, while all of the programs you are actually using and files your user is storing happen on another drive. This combined with a multi-core CPU can especially give a system that is not easily bogged down, even with intense activity, because then there is less contention for both CPU and I/O operations. That is, it's nice to have a large emerge job running and be able to use my system with no noticable slowdown, even for CPU-intensive or I/O-intensive tasks. That may or may not be a good reason to obtain a second hard drive, but if you have multiple drives anyway, it's something to take advantage of.

If it were up to me, with a setup like yours, I'd keep things simple and just make one large 80GB partition. This will be your root partition; that is, it is mounted on "/". Every file is stored off of the root partition unless you designate that a directory should be on another drive (i.e. a mount point). Thus, all files will be stored on it unless of course you mount another partition, such as an external USB hard drive. With a setup like this, the benefits of just keeping it simple outweigh the benefits of trying to plan, ahead of time, how much space each partition will need. The only immediate downside I can think of is that the /usr/portage directory will contribute to filesystem fragmentation, but as long as you always have some free space you'll find that EXT3 is pretty good at dealing with that.

That's my opinion and it's possible that lots of people would disagree with me, especially about whether or not there should be a separate boot partition. That's why I have tried to explain all of my reasons because there is lots of room for alternative schemes. This is the sort of thing where asking five people may get you five different answers, so it really depends on what you want. In your case, since 80GB is not such a large amount of space that it could stand to be broken up into more manageable pieces, because of the planning and risk of improper planning involved with multiple partitions, and because it sounds like you may be new to this (if I have that wrong, please correct me), IMHO you'd probably be happier keeping it simple. Later on when you're more comfortable with this, more familiar with your storage needs, or if you install another hard drive, you may then decide to use a more complex scheme but then it will be your own and will be customized by you to meet your needs.
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PostPosted: Sat Apr 11, 2009 5:38 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

For a new install the conventional approach is just to split it into 3 partitions, boot, swap and root:

Code:

#fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 160.0 GB, 160041885696 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19457 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x20000000

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1               1           7       56196   83  Linux
/dev/sda2               8         257     2008125   82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda3             258       19457   154224000   83  Linux



In this case I have sda1 formatted as ext2 for boot, sda2 as swap and sda3 as root. This is all covered in the install guide, and there are many other options, but this is probably the layout that would give you the fewest issues with the install.

If this is an additional drive, and you don't want to do anything overly 'fancy' (like lvm) you should probably just make 1 partition and format it with a 'normal' file system (e.g. ext3), then mount it into your existing file system, say as /mnt/disk1.
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PostPosted: Sat Apr 11, 2009 6:38 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

If you're like me and you break things a lot (as well as have important files to keep up with), the I would suggest mounting your /home directory on another partition. It has saved me some hassle before when I switch distros (which I don't really do much anyway).
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PostPosted: Tue Apr 14, 2009 4:18 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I tend to keep partitions under 8G, since I back them up to a USB drive and
it gets old otherwise. However, I'd recommend using at least three partitions
/boot, /, and /home, _especially_ if you are new to Gentoo, since it's a lot
easier to change things around, which you (or at least, I) tended to do in the
early days.

Given 80G, I'd go for 64MB /boot, 16G /, 8G maintenance, 8G /usr/portage,
and the rest home. The idea of keeping portage separate is that it needs a
lot of inodes, more than the average system. The maintenance partition is
a bootable system, essentially the same stuff as /, which can be booted from
/boot if it all goes horribly wrong. I usually leave it as the original release
kernel, and never update it; it's only there if things go wrong. It can be the
second item on the grub menu, set up as the fallback. /home is separate
because everything else can be changed without losing data, and /boot is
separate because I hate installing grub, and that way it only has to be installed
once. (I now also use a separate spool directory to avoid fragmentation of /,
but that's a refinement.)

Will
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PostPosted: Tue Apr 14, 2009 4:29 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Merged from this post onward here.

@perlsyntax, please search before posting. Note the term "search" subsumes perusal of the relevant forum index for sticky threads (like this one), reviewing the FAQs and so on.
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PostPosted: Sat May 02, 2009 8:57 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hi I'm a relative noob to linux. I have had experience with ubuntu, and fedora and although I tried to learn more I just couldn't figure It out which is why I have chosen Gentoo also because I want to improve my programing skills.

I'm trying to work out a file system structure for gentoo. I have 2 hard disks (both already containing windows data) the first has 150gb of unpartitioned space and the 2nd has 200gb of unpartitioned space. I have 6GB of ram.

What I want is to use this a a desktop / development environment and also Gaming. I was thinking I would put the compilation stuff and gaming on one hard drive as I don't thinks I will be doing both at once. I'm not really shore how to set up a file system for this. I also plan to use ext4 for all the partitions besides the boot partition. Is it useful for having a swap partion on both disks and how large? I don't want to leave any unallocated space.
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PostPosted: Fri May 08, 2009 4:55 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Years ago I ran across a scenario that taught me to always put /var/log on it's own partition. Basically something went wrong causing constant logging that filled up the partition that /var/log was on which brought the system to its knees. Had /var/log been on its own partition the system would not have forzen - only logging activity would have stopped. It certainly isn't necessary but I view it as prudent.
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PostPosted: Fri May 15, 2009 4:04 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Yet another Partitioning question, this one with some LVM thrown in.

The filesystem on my Arch server just took a dump. I've managed to mount it RO and have pulled a good backup. Even though I think I could salvage the FS, I have nothing but time this weekend, so I guess I'll put Gentoo on it. :)

It's used pretty much exclusively as a NFS and Samba server, and sits headless. There are two 80GB disks. I would like to leave myself with 150GB for data, hopefully keeping Gentoo under 10GB. Is that a tall order?

/dev/hda:
/boot - 32MB
/ - 1GB
swap - 512B
remainder will be a PV.

/dev/hdb:
swap - 512MB
remainder will be a PV.

I'll bring the PVs into a single VG. Here's how I figure the volumes inside that VG:
/var - 3GB?
/usr - 3GB?
/tmp - 1GB
/opt - 512MB
/var/log - 256MB?
/data - remainder

(I am aware of the old 2:1 "swap:memory rule" but the box rarely swaps so I'm going lighter.)

Too lean? Or are there places I can skimp even more? I'm mostly concerned about the /var and /usr volumes. Will that be enough for a headless server?
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 10, 2009 7:29 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Ok so I'm in the sysrestore CD, I'm reading through the documentation and I've come to the part where I need to partition my HD, now my question is this... My current setup is :

100GB Windows Main (Apps/Windows Dir ect)
540GB Rest (Games/Music/Movies)

I could delete everything as I want to get rid of my windows operating system but at the same time I don't know if that's a good idea until I have linux fully operational, on a side note... Will I use a 640 GB HD with linux alone? I plan to use WINE and install games ect, if this is the choice I'm making to go 100% linux + WINE, how should I partition my HD? I really don't care about windows nor anything I have on there currently, I can re-download it all no problem.

How should I partition my HD in this senario?

Current setup according to fdisk :

Code:
Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1               1           7       56196   de  Dell Utility
/dev/sda2   *           8       12756   102400000    7  HPFS/NTFS
/dev/sda3           12756       77826   522674176    7  HPFS/NTFS




Also, I have 4GB of ram, do I really need a swap partition on my HD or no?

Regards,
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 10, 2009 11:52 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Disposition96 wrote:
Ok so I'm in the sysrestore CD, I'm reading through the documentation and I've come to the part where I need to partition my HD, now my question is this... My current setup is :
[...]


If you're ditching completely and going to a single-boot configuration with Gentoo, maybe just stick for now with the Gentoo Handbook's three-partition assumption. Hindsight 20/20 if I did my Gentoo install again I'd make my /boot 100MB or so (so you can fit two versions of the genkernel kernel/initrd if you go that route).

As for swap, that's a constantly debated topic. The "old rule" was that swap should be twice the size of physical memory (so for 4GB of memory, 8GB swap). But that's out of date. I think there are some threads around here discussing the merits/demerits of swap space. Some folks use them, some folks have abandoned them completely, and some like me essentially create them more out of habit than anything. I figure that if I have hard drive space to spare, it can't hurt to make a swap partition even if you don't go by the old 2:1 rule.

EDIT:
Whether or not you need a swap is partly based on what sort of system loads you throw at your hardware. Keep in mind that if you don't make a swap, if you do end up using all 4GB of your physical memory, the system will start killing off processes in a semi-intelligent fashion.
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 24, 2009 4:23 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

see a number of prime candidates for LVM in here
if you use a file system that's easily resized up or down - such as XFS - on top of LVM, there is far less need to be concerned with getting your partitioning schema right the first time

For any that are curious - irrelevant bits removed:

/proc/mounts
Code:

/dev/sda3 on / type reiserfs (rw,noatime,notail)
/dev/mapper/vg0-usr on /usr type xfs (rw,nodev,noatime,logbufs=8)
/dev/mapper/vg0-tmp on /tmp type xfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev,noatime,logbufs=8)
/dev/mapper/vg0-opt on /opt type xfs (rw,nosuid,noatime,logbufs=8)
/dev/mapper/vg0-var on /var type xfs (rw,noatime,logbufs=8)
/dev/mapper/vg0-storage on /storage type xfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev,noatime,logbufs=8)
/dev/mapper/vg0-home on /home type xfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noatime,logbufs=8)


df -h (again, only relevant stuff shown)
Code:

Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda3             2.1G  205M  1.9G  10% /
/dev/mapper/vg0-usr    10G  2.0G  8.1G  20% /usr
/dev/mapper/vg0-tmp   2.0G  4.5M  2.0G   1% /tmp
/dev/mapper/vg0-opt   5.0G  4.2M  5.0G   1% /opt
/dev/mapper/vg0-var    10G  247M  9.8G   3% /var
/dev/mapper/vg0-storage
                      850G   59G  792G   7% /storage
/dev/mapper/vg0-home   20G  203M   20G   1% /home


once more people have a chance to guinea pig and break ext4, I'll eventually have it as /

The other thing having stuff on separate partitions allows you to do, is choose a file system best suited to the typical I/O of the mount

If a mount is going to be doing heavy I/O on small files with mass amounts of deletions, opt for reiserfs or ext4
If it's going to be handling larger files, fewer deletions, critical to have speedy reads, go with XFS

Though LVM setup is an extra step going through the handbook, well worth it in my book, as it allows you to make 'rookie mistakes'
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murderpenguin
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Joined: 27 Jul 2009
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PostPosted: Mon Jul 27, 2009 10:32 am    Post subject: Partition Scheme for Gentoo Reply with quote

I just finished installing my first gentoo install (base, X, Flux, and Xfce) on my laptop with a 120gb harddrive. Currently my HD has 3 partitions:
/dev/sda1 = /boot (512 mb)
/dev/sda2 = swap (3 gigs)
/dev/sda3 = / (20 gigs)

Figured I should ask two major questions since I am still new to linux: what all should have it's own partition, and what size should those partitions be? Also, I do plan on installing another distro of linux to see what it can offer. Should that have it's own partition, or can the two share and play nicely?
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javeree
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Joined: 29 Jan 2006
Posts: 372

PostPosted: Mon Jul 27, 2009 12:37 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Partitioning is one of the topics where everyone has (and is entitled to) his own opinions, so I'll feel free to present mine :D

The partitioning like you do it is fine, although I think that your swap partition is kinda oversized. If you ever need more than one or even .5 Gb swap, you really should consider buying some additional RAM. Another tip is if you use grub as a bootloader to create a directory /boot/grub and a symlink
Quote:
ln -s /boot/grub /boot/grub/grub.

Personally, I tend to make a separate partition for /home to make sure that user data are separate from OS (a remnant of my Windows days, where a reinstall meant killing all your data).
Others sometimes create separate partitions for /var (because that contains a non-fixed amount of data -e.g. in some configuration it contains mail- and they want to make sure it has an upper limit, and reaching that limit should not affect the OS).
Furthermore, a lot of people put /usr/portage on a separate partition because they want to use a different file system (reiserfs) that is better suited for many small files. I once did it and did not see 'by the naked eye' major speed differences

About your second question:
If you want to install a second distro, you should install it on a separate partition, but you can use the same /boot partition.
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