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PsychoJKL
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 22, 2004 1:59 pm    Post subject: Get help on partitioning here [Part 1] Reply with quote


MOD EDIT: Follow up Part 2 of this thread: Get help on partitioning here [Part 2]
-- Deathwing00


Hey all. I am new to linux. I have been using Red Hat 9 for the past few months since there is so much information at the library on it. I am wanting to prepare my computer for a Gentoo x86 installation.

So heres my question.

I have 2 80 GIG hardrives. On 1 hard drive i want to install Gentoo, and on the other id like to put on windows XP (for gaming).

what partitions do i need to make for the linux Hard Drive? just 2 partitions? 1 for swap space, and the rest for linux? and how exactly should i lable the partitions

also, can i install Gentoo AFTER the windows isntallation on the other hard drive?

thank you in advance for all the help.
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peterton
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 22, 2004 2:15 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

actually, I find installing Linux after Windows the easiest.

all my (simple) installs have a /boot, swap and / partition (in that order) of, respectively, 16MB, 512MB and *MB

having a seperate /boot comes from the old days when LILO didn't boot kernels beyond the 1023rd sector. I like it because it prevents me from accidently removing kernels. :roll:

oh yeah, a seperate /home is sometimes nice as well. when reinstalling you can keep your personal files. on 80 GB I suggest 10 for / and * for /home, maybe even 15 for / - I really don't use that much.
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ultraslacker
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 22, 2004 3:46 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

/boot is usually read only, so having it on a separate partition makes sense and prevents user error...unless you are me and routinely do stupid stuff. A week ago I did 'rm -rf /tmp' and promptly rebooted. I still don't know what I was thinking...

I like to have /home on it's own partition - on my system, that's the area that gets the most activity, so if something goes wrong there it doesnt affect the root.
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Lajasha
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 22, 2004 6:57 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

The partitions you use for your box will depend on what you plan on doing with it. You will need a /, swap, /boot, however anything beyond this is optional. I tend to create a /www partition since I have a web-server on mine and can keep the files isolated from everything else incase of a reinstall etc.
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thechris
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 22, 2004 7:37 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

and i use kernel based RAID. i have a /home/documents partition set up as raid1 so that important docs are safer from disk failure.

i always suggest having a /home or such partition. just some way to keep the OS and data seperate in case the OS breaks or you choose to install a different OS.
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ShadowHawkBV
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 22, 2004 10:30 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

My suggestion is: Install Windows on 40Gig or so of the first hardrive. use the last half of the first hd as the /home.

On the second hardrive, /boot(45Meg), /swap (2X Ram-- I know others will debate the need for this), / (25Gig), /usr(+/-40Gig), /var(10 Gig), /tmp(2 Gig), /opt (51GiG). Take space for /usr or / for creating a webserver, or any other drive that will be accessed a lot.

Just my 2 cents (With taxes I think I owe 4 cents.)
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wrepti
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 22, 2004 11:29 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

You don't really need a /boot partition. I didn't use one because I already had 3 partitions on my disk (Windows, Swap, another LInux) and I didn't want to mess with logical partitons. You have to set up your grub/lilo differently than the defaults in the installation guide, though.
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thechris
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 22, 2004 11:39 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

have you also looked into kernel raid? definately a little more challenge. you can set up some partitions for speed, but don't have to. it definately adds options.
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ShadowHawkBV
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 23, 2004 1:55 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:
You don't really need a /boot partition.


That's true, but it's good practices to have one. Same theory as having your /var/log on a separate drive then your system, or your /home on it's own hardrive ot at least partition. In theory you can run the entire show off of one drive.(No swap, but that's a point for developers to argue) It's just a bad habit to get into. At least it is in my opinion. Take that for what it's worth.

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Deathwing00
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PostPosted: Thu Jun 24, 2004 9:05 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

MOD EDIT: Additional information on how to make partitions and the recommended sizes:


Threads with useful information, but locked:

-- Deathwing00 (made sticky)
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Dr Evil
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PostPosted: Fri Jun 25, 2004 8:40 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

thechris wrote:
i always suggest having a /home or such partition. just some way to keep the OS and data seperate in case the OS breaks or you choose to install a different OS.


I have to agree with this big time. I'm very glad I had a separate partition for my /home. I royally screwed up my installation the other night, got fed up and said to hell with it, I'm reinstalling. Did that, and other than just getting the OS and necessary applications installed, had no problems whatsoever with getting things set up the way I like it and such.

/me feels like an ass for not having any idea what he did to screw the box up. :(
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PostPosted: Sat Jun 26, 2004 3:10 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I like to break my partitions up a fair bit for security/reliability.

I agree with peterton, that it's easier to install windows first. Windows requires some of it's boot info to be at the start of the disk (I'm not talking about the MBR), so having it at hda1 makes things neater and easier. Also, Linux can handle dual boots a lot better than Windows, so installing it after, lets it sort things out rather than letting Windows stuff things up.

It's definitely a good idea to have a seperate /boot partition, and set it to not mount at boot. This helps lower the possibility of filesystem corruption, and therefore still giving you a kernel to boot off, if/when something does go wrong.

You can also have a really big swap partition (e.g. 1-2gigs), and have /tmp mount on it using tmpfs, and therefore killing two birds with one stone. It's also a good idea to have your swap at the beginning of the harddrive to increase access times.

Having a seperate /home is also recommended for the reasons stated previously. Doing a reinstall and finding that all your user settings (e.g. browser/mail/bashrc/ad nauseum) are still configured, is very satisfying!! :D

Having seperate /var, /usr and /tmp etc. partitions allows you to prevent device creation/suid etc on those partitions, and can also add to reliability.

My partition table (for a 60 gig hardrive) is:
Code:
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/hda1             471M   60M  387M  14% /
/dev/hda2                1G   1G    0G  100%   swap
/dev/hda5              46M   14M   30M  32% /boot
/dev/hda6             2.8G  865M  1.8G  33% /var
/dev/hda7             3.9G  3.0G  879M  78% /usr
/dev/hda8             2.0G  1.5G  483M  76% /usr/portage
/dev/hda9             9.6G  198M  9.4G   3% /usr/local
/dev/hda10             23G   21G  1.6G  94% /home
/dev/hda11             14G  9.8G  4.2G  71% /usr/local/mp3
tmpfs                 512M  8.0K  512M   1% /tmp
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Ben2040
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PostPosted: Sun Jun 27, 2004 1:14 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hi

My partition setup works well - I'm on an Athlon64 -

Code:

hda1 - Primary - Win XP - 21G
hda2 - Primary - Gentoo 32 bit - 42G
hda3 - Primary - Gentoo 64 bit - 42G
hda5 - Logical - Shared Home Directory - 52G
hda6 - Logical - Swap - 700M

(160Gb HDD)

Hope this helps someone...
Ben[/code]
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gizmol
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PostPosted: Tue Jul 06, 2004 7:32 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hi!

I'm using winXP, but would like to explore linux for first time.
I would like to be able to get a choice between XP and gentoo at startup. This is a "dualboot", right?

My harddisk is 30GB. Using fdisk /dev/hda at the prompt after booting with the LiveCD, i get the following:

Code:

      boot  start   end        blocks      id    system
hda1   *      1     3010   24 177 793+     7   HPFS/NTFS
hda2         3011   3648    5 124 735      f   W95 Ext'd (LBA)
hda5         3011   3648    5 124 703+     7   HPFS/NTFS


hda1 is where winXP is located
hda2 and hda5 are empty.
Is 5GB for a first time linux-tryout really too small?? It's just to learn linux a bit, main tasks are still in WInXP.

What should I do? Can I simply remove hda2 and hda5 , with fdisk?
And create this:

hda2: boot (32M)
hda3: swap (512M, which is also my amount of RAM)
hda4: the rest

And how would I configure the bootloader in that situation?
Is this correct?

Code:
default 0 (so default is winxp)
timeout 30
splashimage=(hd0,3)/grub/...

title=Gentoo Linux....
root (hd0,3)
kernel /kernel-2.4.25-gentoo root=/dev/hda4

title=Windows XP
rootnoverify (hd0,0)
chainloader +1


Thanx a lot!!
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Lajasha
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PostPosted: Tue Jul 06, 2004 7:45 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

5 Gigs should be enough to take gentoo for a spin.

As far as the grub.conf I think you would want it as follows
Code:
default 0 (so default is winxp)
timeout 30
#splashimage=(hd0,3)/grub/...
#Changed from above because your boot partition is /dev/hda2
splashimage=(hd0,1)/grub/...

title=Gentoo Linux....
#root (hd0,3)
#Changed from above because your boot partition is /dev/hda2
root (hd0,1)
kernel /kernel-2.4.25-gentoo root=/dev/hda4

title=Windows XP
rootnoverify (hd0,0)
chainloader +1

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gizmol
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PostPosted: Tue Jul 06, 2004 8:10 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks for quick reply!

(hd0,1) ... off course my mistake, boot partition will indeed be /dev/hda2

As for the partitions. Deleting all but the first (the one with xp) and adding
hda2: boot (32M)
hda3: swap (512M, which is also my amount of RAM)
hda4: the rest of the space

won't mess up my hard drive??
And will this (in addition to the bootloader you corrected) give me the ability to choose between the 2 OS at startup???
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Lajasha
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PostPosted: Tue Jul 06, 2004 8:23 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Yea deleting the extra partitions will not have an effect on windows as long as there is no system info on them. As for the boot loader yes once you get gentoo installed you will be able to pick the os you want to load and even the default OS to load.
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ParaDockS
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PostPosted: Wed Jul 07, 2004 2:45 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

What would be the best partition sizes for a computer with a 120GB HD and 512MB RAM?
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Lajasha
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PostPosted: Wed Jul 07, 2004 2:52 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Well, honestly that would depend on what you are going to do with it. If you can give some more info on its purpose we might be able to recommend something, along with there being alot of good info in this post regaurding sizes of partitions.
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ParaDockS
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PostPosted: Wed Jul 07, 2004 3:01 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

It's not going to be a server, just a multi-purpose workstation. eg. web browsing, text editing, photo and video editing, games, etc.
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Abomination5
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 09, 2004 2:15 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

My system is going to be a simple workstation(for now at least)...web, email, games, etc. I have 1GB of ram, do I really need a swap partition?
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PostPosted: Sat Jul 10, 2004 5:36 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

You should always have a swap partition even if it's small. Linux seems to cope better with at least some swap. I'm running a server with 2GB of RAM and made a 500MB swap partition. It never gets used, but it's a small amount of disk to sacrifice to ensure that Linux doesn't crap out on me.
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regnever
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PostPosted: Sun Jul 11, 2004 2:23 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

just a quick question... could I put the boot partition on a logical partition but not a primary one?
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 15, 2004 6:07 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Two questions:

1.) Is there a partition-magic like utility for linux?
2.) I need help with a partition table design... I've read up on some security docs and found:

Quote:

5. Mounting partitions

When mounting an ext2, ext3 or a reiserfs partition, you have several options you can apply to the /etc/fstab. The options are:

* nosuid - Will ignore the SUID bit and make it just like an ordinary file
* noexec - Will prevent from executing files from this partition
* nodev - Ignores devices

Unfortunately these settings can easily be circumvented by executing a non-direct path. However setting /tmp to noexec will stop about 99% of all script kiddies since their exploits are designed to be executed directly from /tmp.

Code Listing 5.1: /etc/fstab

/dev/sda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 1
/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
/dev/sda3 / reiserfs notail,noatime 0 0
/dev/sda4 /tmp reiserfs notail,noatime,nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
/dev/sda5 /var reiserfs notail,noatime,nodev 0 0
/dev/sda6 /home reiserfs notail,noatime,nodev,nosuid 0 0
/dev/sda7 /usr reiserfs notail,noatime,nodev,ro 0 0
/dev/cdroms /cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
proc /proc proc defaults 0 0

Warning: Placing /tmp in noexec mode can prevent certain scripts from executing properly.


This will be a webserver apache, ssh, sftp or vsftp, and mysql server.

So what Im thinking is something like this:
Code:

/dev/hda1  /boot
/dev/hda2  /swap
/dev/hda3  /root
/dev/hda4  /home       
/dev/hda5  /tmp          # so that /tmp can be mounted noexec
/dev/hda6  /www         # mysql, apache, ssh, and vsftp chrooted env


Tell me if im thinking about this correctly.... or if it should be broken down even more....
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aditsu
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 16, 2004 1:07 am    Post subject: no boot partition Reply with quote

wrepti wrote:
You don't really need a /boot partition. [...] You have to set up your grub/lilo differently than the defaults in the installation guide, though.


Can someone please elaborate on this?
Especially how to setup lilo, because grub didn't work for me. Also what to write in fstab (the kernel compilation complains that it can't mount /boot).
Is it still possible to use genkernel?

Thanks
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