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Ard Righ
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PostPosted: Sun Jul 25, 2004 1:06 pm    Post subject: Re: Partitioning Reply with quote

PsychoJKL wrote:
Hey all. I am new to linux. I have been using Red Hat 9 for the past few months since there is so much information at the library on it. I am wanting to prepare my computer for a Gentoo x86 installation.


I hope you enjoyed using Red Hat, as I have recommended a number of my friends to install that, before trying other versions of Linux. Red Hat is good for getting used to the 'feel' of linux, before commiting to anything more serious you may not be comfortable with.

Quote:

So heres my question.

I have 2 80 GIG hardrives. On 1 hard drive i want to install Gentoo, and on the other id like to put on windows XP (for gaming).

what partitions do i need to make for the linux Hard Drive? just 2 partitions? 1 for swap space, and the rest for linux? and how exactly should i lable the partitions

also, can i install Gentoo AFTER the windows isntallation on the other hard drive?

thank you in advance for all the help.


Since you have been using linux for only 6 months, and you are unsure about how to install Gentoo, I think it would be fair to say the easiest method for installing Gentoo, would be to stick to that recommended in the Gentoo Handbook and Section 4: Preparing the disks:
Code:
4.b. Designing a Partitioning Scheme

Default Partitioning Scheme

If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system, you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book:
Partition    Filesystem    Size    Description
/dev/hda1    ext2    32M    Boot partition
/dev/hda2    (swap)    512M    Swap partition
/dev/hda3    ext3    Rest of the disk    Root partition

Once you have been using linux for longer, that you feel more comfortable changing your install, then it would be a good idea to look at a different partition layout. But as you are currently unsure follow the KISS rule - Keep It Simple Stupid.
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Ard Righ
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PostPosted: Sun Jul 25, 2004 1:18 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

wrepti wrote:
You don't really need a /boot partition. I didn't use one because I already had 3 partitions on my disk (Windows, Swap, another LInux) and I didn't want to mess with logical partitons. You have to set up your grub/lilo differently than the defaults in the installation guide, though.


Without trying to turn this thread into a flamewar - Is that really a wise comment in a thread to a new user, who has never used Gentoo before ?
Someone who has used linux in total for 6 months, on average (no insult intended to PsychoJKL here) isn't going to be a master at fixing boot problems with LILO/Grub and the initscripts after trying to follow such a comment to see if it works or not :roll:

While this thread may require itself some ounce of personal opinion on how to install Gentoo - for new users, it would be highly recommended if people answer a simple question, with a simple answer.

If you are replying to anyone other than the original thread author, it would be recommended again if you quote the original message, so as not to confuse the original question with off-topic replies.

Just my $0.20c
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Echtelion
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PostPosted: Mon Jul 26, 2004 11:32 pm    Post subject: My personal experience as "6 months Linux user"... Reply with quote

I have used Red Hat Linux for 6 months. Two weeks ago I started to try Gentoo Linux. I registered to this forum today :)

In my opinion, from what I tried and learned in the last two weeks, if you are a beginner you should keep it simple. Later, you can always reinstall your system. And I think you will. At least I did...

If you intend to have a personal desktop, with no services available to the Internet, or at least not available to the general public, you should have something like:

/dev/hda1 p ntfs 40960MB # for Windows
/dev/hda2 p ext3 /boot 100MB # ext3 on all Linux filesystems
/dev/hda3 p swap swap 1024M # doesn't heart anyone
/dev/hda4 e # expanded partition
/dev/hda5 l ext3 / 20480MB # for Gentoo :)
(some free space)

This should work fine for one 80GB disk drive. There is some free space left in case you want a Windows/Linux FAT32 partition for sharing documents or media. You can easily create it on Windows and add it to Gentoo's /etc/fstab (mounted on /win for example). I use only one standard filesystem and prefer ext3. If have a disk smaller than 80GB adjust the size of /dev/hda1, /dev/hda5 and the free space to your own needs.

With two 80GB disk drives you could do something a little better but still simple:

/dev/hda1 p ntfs 30720MB # Windows C: System
/dev/hda2 e # expanded partition
/dev/hda5 l ntfs whats left # Windows D: My Documents

/dev/hdb1 p ext3 /boot 256MB # boot partition
/dev/hdb2 p swap 1024MB # swap partition
/dev/hdb3 p ext3 / 20480MB # for Gentoo :)
/dev/hdb4 e # expanded partition
/dev/hdb5 l ext3 /home 40960MB # for your documents
/dev/hdb6 l fat32 /win whats left # for shared documents

This is my own partition scheme. I think is nice because it splits system space and documents space in both Windows and Linux so I can reinstall any of them easily (if reinstall Windows I have to reconfigure the bootloader with the LiveCD).

But I would like to hear what experts have to say about this basic partitioning scheme intended for beginners.
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PostPosted: Wed Jul 28, 2004 5:51 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hi,
Yes you can install gentoo after installing XP.

you should go for atleast these 3 partitions one each for boot, swap and "/". Having /home on a seperate partition is also a good option.
For partitioning, You can use any partitioning utility like fdisk.
You can even use disk-management tool of XP to partition.

However please remember to
1. Prepare suitable file systems before installation. You can safely use mke2fs for boot, mkswap for swap and mkreiserfs for /.
2. Install grub on the MBR of the disk from where the XP is booting, ususlly hd0 for grub.

Regards,
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gi1242
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 29, 2004 4:09 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:
Two questions:

1.) Is there a partition-magic like utility for linux?

Yep. qtparted. I personally preffer fdisk ;). If while installing gentoo, you boot with Knoppix (instead of the live CD) you can use qtparted or your favourite GUI based utility for this / anyother task (e.g. downloading tarballs).
Quote:
2.) I need help with a partition table design... I've read up on some security docs and found:

I read you plan to mount /tmp with noexec. It causes quite a few scritps to break (especially when you run X/KDE), so be sure you know what you're doing. If you're worried about outside hackers attacking your machine, then this will only stop newbies. The more experienced have many nastier tricks up their sleve (our serves have been broken into many many times).

And finally, if you're worried about your own users messing with your system, then this will not even stop newbies. So personally I don't think it's worth fixing all the broken scripts :)

If there's a guru around with better advice, i'd be interested in knowing ... :)

GI
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Illissius
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PostPosted: Sat Jul 31, 2004 6:37 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I have a 40GB drive which has so far been windows-exclusive, configured like so:

2GB NTFS - Windows 2000, minus swap file and programs
A complete and utter mess of ~5GB partitions, usually FAT32 (I plan on getting around to condensing it into one big partition someday, because it's a *mess*) - music, games, videos, Windows programs, and so on (basically everything else)
6.5GB - Space I've managed to free up for Gentoo
1GB - Swap, also have my Windows swap file on it via swapfs

So my question is how to partition the remaining 6.5GB. 50-100MB for /boot is a given (how big is a kernel? If I were to have more than one, how much additional space does it need?). I'd otherwise just give the remaining space entirely to /, but putting /home in a seperate partition seems tempting. No idea how much space I should allocate it, though. For the most part, I plan on putting anything that I can and makes sense (eg documents, media, but not for example linux programs, scripts and such) on one of the existing FAT32 partitions, so that I can access it from both OSes. What stuff is there that would still go into /home, and how big is it? Or should I just map /home to an existing FAT32 partition?
And one more question. What filesystem? I've managed to gather that ext3 is the most stable, and reiser is the fastest (and iirc has other good properties) but is less stable; and that there is also reiser v4 which is even faster but even less stable. How much faster is each than the other, and how much less stable? Which should I use?
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PostPosted: Thu Aug 05, 2004 9:35 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hello :) I'm new here, so first I'd like to say hello to everybody and then I'd like to say that I'm sorry to be hijacking PsychoJKL's thread but I thought this would be a good place to ask this. In the Gentoo installation guide it is said that a seperate partition for /var should be ~3GB if you want to compile KDE and Gnome. Well I got all my partitions configured and the only space I got left for /var is 2GB. So I wanted to ask if this is OK and if I won't run out of space while compiling KDE or Gnome? How much space did /var take up when you compiled KDE/Gnome? (if you compiled them at all) Thank you in advance for your answers! :)
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PostPosted: Thu Aug 12, 2004 6:26 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

n00bage question here, I'm new to Linux and I was wondering, I have stuff already on a hd but I don't want to format it. Can I make a partition and keep my windows stuff on here but make it from the free space?
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PostPosted: Sat Aug 21, 2004 3:32 pm    Post subject: Separate Drives for swap? Reply with quote

Would it make sense for the following layout?(2 80gig SATA drives)
SDA - WinXP system 40 gig, Gentoo system (/boot/, and the main one)
SDB - Shared documents for XP and Gentoo (so /home/ and My Documents), and the swap partition?

If so, what would the actual partition table look like?

And I could do so without damaging an existing Win XP partition?
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mightymouse
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PostPosted: Sat Aug 28, 2004 3:43 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

newbie question

i'm planning to set the partitioning for dual boot as

/dev/hda1: Windows (already installed)
/dev/hda2: /boot (32M)
/dev/hda3: swap
/dev/hda4: the rest

i was wondering do i leave the boot * on hda1 with windows or do i change it to /dev/hda2
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PostPosted: Sat Sep 18, 2004 10:18 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Here are my impressions of what kind of scheme would work, spaces are mostly minimums

hda1 /boot 32 Mb
hda2 / 5 Gb
hda3 C: 4 Gb
hda4 extended
hda5 swap 512 Mb
hda6 /tmp 1Gb(?)
hda7 /home 1 Gb
hda8 /usr 13 Gb
hda9 /opt 1.5 Gb
hda10 E: 13 Gb (windows program partition)

Is this a good setup? Should partition out 3GB for /var? Also, someone mentioned you could user swap and /tmp in the same partition, how do you do that exactly?
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PostPosted: Sun Sep 19, 2004 10:17 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

If you are puzzled designing a partitioning scheme for gentoo, then you will probably need NOTHING but /boot (+32M), swap (double your mem), / (the rest). Ok, a separate /home is generally a good idea, but if you don't know how large it should be, DON'T MAKE IT. Why should you have things more complicated than they are?
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KikyoMerc
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PostPosted: Tue Oct 05, 2004 3:03 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

If i make a /home, is there anything i need to do to make it mount at boot? I am installing gentoo, (i had it before but pretty much had no idea what i was doing and still dont). If i make my hd...

/dev/hde1 ext2 32mb /boot
/dev/hde2 swap 1024mb swap
/dev/hde3 reiserfs 40gb /
/dev/hde4 reiserfs (the rest) /home

I have a 120gb hd
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PostPosted: Wed Oct 06, 2004 4:51 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

lo & thx for your links Deathwing00 ;)
helped me a lot !

br

k
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PostPosted: Mon Oct 11, 2004 9:10 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

KikyoMerc wrote:
If i make a /home, is there anything i need to do to make it mount at boot?

Just add it to your /etc/fstab, like all your other partitions.
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PostPosted: Tue Oct 12, 2004 3:40 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I also have a 120GB HD and 512MB RAM. I run a home server system on an old Compaq Deskpro (P2 350Mhz).

I have partitioned my drive like so (no dual-boot, bah):

hda1: /boot, 100MB - kernel(s), bootmanager
hda2: swap, 1GB - 2x size of RAM
hda3: /, 3GB - system software
hda5: /usr, 10GB - portage, software
hda6: /var, 25GB - compiling, storing mail (IMAP server)
hda7: /home, 80GB - storing data for users and samba shares

This works extremely well for me.
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PostPosted: Tue Oct 19, 2004 6:08 pm    Post subject: ATA RAID & partitioning errors... Reply with quote

ATA RAID & partitioning errors...

I guess this is the appropriate place for this... though it has as much to do with RAID as partitioning (I think?).

Boot with -doataraid option.

edit /etc/raidtab...

Set up ATA RAID with /etc/raidtab:

Code:

raiddev   /dev/md0
   raid-level      1
   nr-raid-disks   2
   ns-spare-disks  1
   chunk-size      64
   persistent-superblock     1
   device          /dev/hda
   raid-disk       0
   device          /dev/had
   raid-disk       1
   device          /dev/hdb
   spare-disk      0

...then
Code:
 mkraid /dev/md0
works fine:
Code:

cat /proc/mdstat

Personalities : [raid1]
read_ahead 1024 sectors
md0 : active raid1
ide/host0/bus0/target1/lun0/disk[2]
ide/host0/bus1/target1/lun0/disk[1]
ide/host0/bus1/target0/lun0/disk[0]

8256960 blocks [2/2] [UU]
unused devices: <none>


So I check fdisk and create these partitions:
Code:

fdisk /dev/md0

Device          Boot    Start   End     Blocks     ID   System
/dev/md0p1       *      1       9       72261      83   Linux
/dev/md0p2              10      134     1004062+   82   Linux swap
/dev/md0p3              135     500     2939898    83   Linux
/dev/md0p4              501     1027    4233127+   83   Linux


When doing "w" to apply changes system returns an "error 22"...

Code:

The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition tablel
md: fdisk(pid 2584) used obselete MD ioctl, upgrade your software to use new ictls.

WARNING:  Re-reading the partition table failed with error 22:  Invalid argument.
The kernel still uses the old table.
The new table will be used at the next reboot.
Syncing disks.


After a reboot I check fdisk /dev/md0 again and find the same partitions I set up all ok as listed above.

After mkraid and fdisk and reboot are done...
trying to create file systems inside:
Code:
 mke2fs /dev/md0p1


returns this:
Code:

mke2fs 1.35 (28 Feb 2004)
Could not start /dev/md0p1 --- No such file or directory

The device apparently does not exist; did you specify it correctly?


Check RAID with:
Code:
 raidstart /dev/md0

which returns:
Code:
md:  array md0 already exists!
/dev/md0: already running


...so, what am I missing?
Why can't I create filesystems inside the partitions I set up inside the RAID?

I've done this three times with the exact same results.

One additional question:
How can I save the changes and configs made so far (/etc/raidtab & /etc/fstab) across reboots? (before partitions' filesystems are created?) And where is this saved?

Can I have everything inside the RAID?
Am I doing this in the right order?

thanks in advance for reading and for suggestions!

n3r8d

Daren
voxaudi (on) yahoo! dot kom
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PostPosted: Tue Oct 19, 2004 6:18 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

tolkachev wrote:
If you are puzzled designing a partitioning scheme for gentoo, then you will probably need NOTHING but /boot (+32M), swap (double your mem), / (the rest). Ok, a separate /home is generally a good idea, but if you don't know how large it should be, DON'T MAKE IT. Why should you have things more complicated than they are?


I shouldn't say this, but that's why I use LVM2, I can never make up my mind, and every time I guess I am way off target.

But seriously, IMHO if you want to partition things out logically and in a granular manner, but you haven't done it before, LVM systems are a great way to work out the kinks. That's how I learned originally, on an old AIX box with IBMs LVM.
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PostPosted: Fri Nov 05, 2004 3:01 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Is it possible to have two or more directories at the same partition? For instance, can I have something like this?
hda1: /boot
hda2: swap
hda3: /
hda5: /usr and /opt
hda6: /home and /var
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PostPosted: Mon Nov 08, 2004 9:29 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

The_Saint wrote:
Is it possible to have two or more directories at the same partition?


Just create symlinks instead. For example,
Code:
ln -s /usr/local /opt

ensures that all binary/optional packages are installed to /usr/local on the /usr partition.
If you already have an /opt directory, simply mv it to the new destination and symlink afterwards.

As was mentioned before, for people new to the linux world using just one / and a /boot partition is recommended. It works and you will reinstall anyway once you know your way around.

My own partition scheme (for my desktop) evolved into this:

122M /boot
512M /swap
958M /
35G /usr
5.2G /var
4.2G /tmp
74G /home

with some changes to the gentoo defaults:

- portage tree moved to the /var partition (make.conf edited).
- /opt symlinked to /usr/local
- /tmp, as it should, holds all the junk that is save to delete, like ccache files and PORTAGE_TMPDIR. Once you have compiled OO.org you know the reason for it's size.

Plenty of space for applications (although only games really need that much, otherwise 10G should be enough) and volatile data, system stuff and personal data cleanly seperated without creating a bottleneck.

But aesthetics and usage profile may differ.
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PostPosted: Wed Nov 10, 2004 12:41 pm    Post subject: is this partition scheme OK? Reply with quote

Hi,
i encountered some problems during gentoo install routine,and i suspect that my partition scheme maybe is wrong...anyway,before i continue in my attempts to install gentoo,is this scheme is OK:

/dev/hda:
/boot 128 MB
swap 1024 MB
/var 4 GB
/ 2GB

/dev/hdb:
/usr 3.5GB
/usr/portage 3.5 GB

and now some words about problems:
when i try:
Code:
# tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/stages/stage3-x86-2004.2.tar.bz2

it works for a bit of time and suddenly,start bombing me with messages like "no more space left on device" or something similar.
my scheme was :
/dev/hda:
swap 1 GB
/ 6 GB

/dev/hdb:
/ var 7GB

Oh yes, when i try to run stage 1 instead,that is OK, but then when i try this:
Code:
# tar -xvjf /mnt/cdrom/snapshots/portage-20040710.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/gentoo/usr

i also get some errors( but not regerding proc and "from previous errors" like described in install guide)

my configuration:
p3 866
512 sdram
gforce4 440 se 3dclub
hda 13 G (win:linux = 50:50)
hdb 40 G (win 33 G,linux 7 G)
hdc lg cdrom
hdd lg cd burner
Am i right about bad partitioning problem?
Thanks a lot.
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PostPosted: Fri Nov 12, 2004 12:53 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Afternoon' all,

Kinda a newbish question but :roll:, when your intalling gentoo does it really make a diference where you mount your instalation? Can you change it after it's installed?

Eg.: I have about 9 partions setup for the various parts of the system, (i.e: /var, /opt, /home, etc etc etc) and I want the final result be that of having those parts of the system mounted on each partition.

For instance, I'm worried that after installing the base system I wont be able to mount portage on the partition I really want it to be in.

So, would I need to mount everything from the beggining or could I just install everything and do it later?

I know it's bit hard answering this without concrete examples (aka my partition tree) but I'm at work and can't really remember it all.....

Thank you all in advance for the help....
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PostPosted: Fri Nov 12, 2004 1:25 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

You can mount them afterwards, but you'll need to move all your files over to the new partition. This usually involves mounting the partition somewhere temporary, copying the files over, unmounting and remounting where you want it to be, and then testing it. If it doesn't work, unmount it and check that you copied the files with all their permissions and so on. (Tip: use cp -a)

Hope this makes sense!
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PostPosted: Fri Nov 12, 2004 1:28 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

nikoladsp: Your partition scheme looks fine, although 3.5Gb for portage is excessive unless you're also sharing it over a network. For home use, 2Gb should be fine. When you got messages about running out of space, are you sure you were extracting the stage tarball to the right place, as opposed to somewhere in the filesystem of the livecd? That's just RAM, so that would probably cause you to run out of space...
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PostPosted: Sat Nov 13, 2004 11:15 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hi All,

I was about to start a new thread, but this seems to be suitable for my query:

I am about to install Gentoo on a new 80G ATA disk (hdb). This and my 40G hda have a 7200rpm speed. They are both fitted on the primary controller as master (hda) and slave (hdb). The third disk (hdc) weighing in at just 8G and a 5400rpm speed, is connected to the secondary controller as a secondary master along with a CDRW (secondary slave).

hda contains DOS, WinXP, and 5 more partitions with user documents and data.

hdb currently contains MSDOS & WinXP which will be promptly wiped out as soon as I decide on the details of the Gentoo partition scheme.

hdc contains an ~x86 Gentoo installation which I will use to bootstrap the new Gentoo x86 installation on hdb, copy existing portage and /home from and also the contents of any config file settings which I would like to retain. Once the hdb installation is complete, I will wipe hdc and use it for data back ups.

The box is used for general office, browsing, and multimedia work. At some point in the future I would also like to use it like a Tivo box to record TV programmes (DVB-T card is on the Christmas shopping list! ;) ) and if I can convince my other half to move to Linux she will start using it for her web design and video editing work, instead of WinXP.

Having pondered on this I have come up with the following partition sizes and mount points for my new installation and would like to check these and my thinking against your experience.

Code:

Partition   Directory   Size
/dev/hdb1   /boot      50.0M   
/dev/hdb2   /tmp       ?   M
/dev/hdb3   /var      500.0M?
/dev/hdb5   /usr        6.5G
/dev/hdb6   /home       1.0G
/dev/hdb7   /         350.0M?


The rest of the system will be probably mounted on the hda, as follows (this is just an option - please see questions 2, 3 below):
Code:

Partition   Directory   Size
/dev/hda5   swap      130.0M #I have 320M RAM
/dev/hda6   /var/tmp    3.0G?
/dev/hda7   /lib      300.0M?


The two key ideas for my partitioning are that directories are installed in faster disk sectors according to their need for speed and some of them on another disk (hda?) to allow parallel access by the CPU.

I know that there are a lot of different opinions on the size of swap. I currently have 648M and the most that I have ever seen being used (say when emerging something really large like OOo, or KDE) is around 35M.

Here's a few questions that I do not yet have the answers to:

1. What should be the size of /tmp?

2. Which disk/partition should I mount swap to?
Is access to it going to be faster if it is mounted on hda5, which has a speed of 7200rpm, but is on the same controller; or is it going to be faster on hdc1 using the slower hdc disk with a 5400rpm, which however is on its own separate controller?

3. Same principle, but the question is now where to mount /tmp and /var/tmp for speed. hda spins faster, but it has to wait its turn for the controller to finish processing hdb. hdc is slower but it can happily work in parallel with hdb as it has its own controller.

4. Finally, assuming that you have on your box a complete system installation, with applications, etc. would you care sharing the sizes of your directories? Also please mention your desktop manager.


Here's my current Gentoo size:
Code:
DM=Fluxbox and KDE

Directory   |   Size
-----------   --------
/tmp           2.3M
/usr           4.2G
 +->/portage   1.8G
 +->/lib     434.0M
/lib           8.8M
/var         176.0M
/var/tmp      22.0M
/opt         324.0M


The above is static size, i.e. not while compiling OOo. :)
_________________
Regards,
Mick
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