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ascendant
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Joined: 13 Nov 2008
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PostPosted: Fri Nov 02, 2012 11:58 pm    Post subject: ext4, mdadm read errors [solved] Reply with quote

Hi, everyone, this looks to be the right forum though I'm not actually convinced yet that this is a hardware problem,

Basically, I've got a 4-disk raid 5 with each disk passing badblocks, as well as the raid volume itself. However, when I format the volume with ext4 and copy files to it, one of the disks (sdc) starts barfing out read errors and mdadm ejects it.
hardware geometry:
smartctl -i /dev/sdc
Model Family:     Western Digital Caviar Green (Adv. Format)
Device Model:     WDC WD20EARX-00PASB0
Firmware Version: 51.0AB51
User Capacity:    2,000,398,934,016 bytes [2.00 TB]
Sector Sizes:     512 bytes logical, 4096 bytes physical

smartctl -i /dev/sdd
Model Family:     Western Digital Caviar Green (Adv. Format)
Device Model:     WDC WD20EARX-008FB0
Firmware Version: 51.0AB51
User Capacity:    2,000,398,934,016 bytes [2.00 TB]
Sector Sizes:     512 bytes logical, 4096 bytes physical

smartctl -i /dev/sde
Model Family:     Western Digital Caviar Green (Adv. Format)
Device Model:     WDC WD20EARX-008FB0
Firmware Version: 51.0AB51
User Capacity:    2,000,398,934,016 bytes [2.00 TB]
Sector Sizes:     512 bytes logical, 4096 bytes physical

(parted) select /dev/sdc
Using /dev/sdc
(parted) print                                                           
Model: ATA WDC WD20EARX-00P (scsi)
Disk /dev/sdc: 3907029168s
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/4096B
Partition Table: gpt
Disk Flags:

Number  Start  End          Size         File system  Name  Flags
 1      2048s  3907028991s  3907026944s               dev1  raid

Disk /dev/sdd: 3907029168s

Number  Start  End          Size         File system  Name  Flags
 1      2048s  3907028991s  3907026944s               dev2  raid

Disk /dev/sde: 3907029168s

Number  Start  End          Size         File system  Name  Flags
 1      2048s  3907028991s  3907026944s               dev3  raid
mdadm:
/dev/md1:
        Version : 1.2
  Creation Time : Fri Nov  2 17:53:04 2012
     Raid Level : raid5
     Array Size : 5860535808 (5589.04 GiB 6001.19 GB)
  Used Dev Size : 1953511936 (1863.01 GiB 2000.40 GB)
   Raid Devices : 4
  Total Devices : 3
    Persistence : Superblock is persistent

  Intent Bitmap : /bitmap

    Update Time : Fri Nov  2 18:04:07 2012
          State : clean, degraded
 Active Devices : 3
Working Devices : 3
 Failed Devices : 0
  Spare Devices : 0

         Layout : left-symmetric
     Chunk Size : 512K

           Name : roar:raid  (local to host roar)
           UUID : 12c57c99:e30ff349:728630cc:63c27604
         Events : 12

    Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State
       0       0        0        0      removed
       1       8       33        1      active sync   /dev/sdc1
       2       8       49        2      active sync   /dev/sdd1
       3       8       65        3      active sync   /dev/sde1
After I copy files (and receive errors) these lines change::
          State : clean, FAILED
 Active Devices : 2
Working Devices : 2
 Failed Devices : 1
         Events : 4337
    Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State
       0       0        0        0      removed
       1       0        0        1      removed
       2       8       49        2      active sync   /dev/sdd1
       3       8       65        3      active sync   /dev/sde1

       1       8       33        -      faulty spare   /dev/sdc1
As you may have noticed, one drive is missing, this is intentional and will be added to the array once I can get it all working reliably. That disk is the same size as the rest and currently contains the data that will be moved onto the array. Here are the relevant commands that I have used:
commands:
checking existing drives:
badblocks -b 4096 -o badblocks.txt -p 2 -s -t random -vw /dev/sd?

creating  the array:
mdadm --verbose --create /dev/md1 --name=raid --level=5 --raid-devices=4 missing /dev/sdc1 /dev/sdd1 /dev/sde1 --bitmap=/bitmap

formatting the array:
mkfs.ext4 -v -m 0 -b 4096 -E stride=128,stripe-width=384 -L raid -O dir_index,uninit_bg /dev/md1

Checking for duplicate failed sectors returns nothing, always different sectors fail:
grep "sdc, sector" /var/log/messages | awk '{ print $NF }' | sort | uniq -d
software environment:
Linux roar 3.5.0-gentoo #9 SMP Fri Nov 2 05:11:25 CDT 2012 x86_64 Intel(R) Core(TM)2 CPU 6400 @ 2.13GHz GenuineIntel GNU/Linux
[I] sys-kernel/gentoo-sources
    Installed versions:  3.5.0(3.5.0)^bs(06:03:35 AM 08/10/2012)(-build -deblob -symlink)
[I] sys-fs/mdadm
     Installed versions:  3.1.4^t(02:58:24 AM 10/03/2011)(-static)
[I] sys-fs/e2fsprogs
     Installed versions:  1.42(09:33:36 PM 02/23/2012)(nls -elibc_FreeBSD -static-libs)
Update:
smarctl -x on the bad drive: http://dpaste.com/823331/
Have tried another SATA cable, and one of the other ports.
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Last edited by ascendant on Wed Nov 14, 2012 7:23 am; edited 1 time in total
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lagalopex
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PostPosted: Sat Nov 03, 2012 8:42 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

What does dmesg give you when the disk fails?
Any reason for an external bitmap? What filesystem is root?
And the greens are not so well suited for a raid... reds are.
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AMD64 system slow/unresponsive during disk access...
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ascendant
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Joined: 13 Nov 2008
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PostPosted: Sat Nov 03, 2012 11:13 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks for the interest!
I realize that WD Greens are risky in a hardware raid configuration due to their lack of TLER, but they are known to work in software raid. WD Reds are also rather more costly.
External bitmap is to reduce resync times in the event of a drive failure. / is ext4.
Additionally, after more testing, I have discovered that the array will still fail even without a filesystem and only running badblocks although it takes hours to do so rather than seconds. (heh, and also mdadm can write raid 5 at up to 1.1 GB/s when it is no longer limited by functioning hardware)

I will run more tests on the offending drive. With any luck, the previous tests are now invalid and it will error enough that I can return it.
Here are excerpts from messages:
Code:
Nov  2 18:48:45 roar kernel: ata3: EH in SWNCQ mode,QC:qc_active 0x7FFC7FFF sactive 0x7FFC7FFF
Nov  2 18:48:45 roar kernel: ata3: SWNCQ:qc_active 0x40000 defer_bits 0x7FF87FFF last_issue_tag 0x12
Nov  2 18:48:45 roar kernel: dhfis 0x40000 dmafis 0x0 sdbfis 0x0
Nov  2 18:48:45 roar kernel: ata3: ATA_REG 0x41 ERR_REG 0x4
Nov  2 18:48:45 roar kernel: ata3: tag : dhfis dmafis sdbfis sactive
Nov  2 18:48:45 roar kernel: ata3: tag 0x12: 1 0 0 1 
Nov  2 18:48:45 roar kernel: ata3.00: exception Emask 0x1 SAct 0x7ffc7fff SErr 0x0 action 0x6 frozen
Nov  2 18:48:45 roar kernel: ata3.00: Ata error. fis:0x41
Nov  2 18:48:45 roar kernel: ata3.00: failed command: WRITE FPDMA QUEUED
Nov  2 18:48:45 roar kernel: ata3.00: cmd 61/08:00:e8:2c:1d/00:00:01:00:00/40 tag 0 ncq 4096 out
Nov  2 18:48:45 roar kernel: res 41/04:00:00:00:00/04:00:00:00:00/00 Emask 0x1 (device error)
Nov  2 18:48:45 roar kernel: ata3.00: status: { DRDY ERR }
Nov  2 18:48:45 roar kernel: ata3.00: error: { ABRT }
<snip duplicates>
Nov  2 18:48:45 roar kernel: ata3: hard resetting link
Nov  2 18:48:45 roar kernel: ata3: nv: skipping hardreset on occupied port
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: ata3: SATA link up 3.0 Gbps (SStatus 123 SControl 300)
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: ata3.00: configured for UDMA/133
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: sd 2:0:0:0: [sdc] 
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: Result: hostbyte=0x00 driverbyte=0x08
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: sd 2:0:0:0: [sdc] 
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: Sense Key : 0xb [current] [descriptor]
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: Descriptor sense data with sense descriptors (in hex):
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: 72 0b 00 00 00 00 00 0c 00 0a 80 00 00 00 00 00
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: 00 00 00 00
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: sd 2:0:0:0: [sdc] 
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: ASC=0x0 ASCQ=0x0
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: sd 2:0:0:0: [sdc] CDB:
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: cdb[0]=0x2a: 2a 00 01 1d 2c e8 00 00 08 00
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: end_request: I/O error, dev sdc, sector 18689256
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: sd 2:0:0:0: [sdc] 
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: md/raid:md1: Disk failure on sdc1, disabling device.
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: md/raid:md1: Operation continuing on 2 devices.
<snip duplicates>
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: end_request: I/O error, dev sdc, sector 18690048
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: md/raid:md1: read error not correctable (sector 18688000 on sdc1).
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: md/raid:md1: read error not correctable (sector 18688008 on sdc1).
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: md/raid:md1: read error not correctable (sector 18688016 on sdc1).
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: md/raid:md1: read error not correctable (sector 18688024 on sdc1).
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: md/raid:md1: read error not correctable (sector 18688032 on sdc1).
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: md/raid:md1: read error not correctable (sector 18688040 on sdc1).
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: md/raid:md1: read error not correctable (sector 18688048 on sdc1).
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: md/raid:md1: read error not correctable (sector 18688056 on sdc1).
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: md/raid:md1: read error not correctable (sector 18688064 on sdc1).
<snip>
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: ata3: EH complete
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: RAID conf printout:
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: --- level:5 rd:4 wd:2
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: disk 1, o:0, dev:sdc1
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: disk 2, o:1, dev:sdd1
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: disk 3, o:1, dev:sde1
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: RAID conf printout:
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: --- level:5 rd:4 wd:2
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: disk 2, o:1, dev:sdd1
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: disk 3, o:1, dev:sde1
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: Buffer I/O error on device md1, logical block 7006848
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: Buffer I/O error on device md1, logical block 7006849
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: Buffer I/O error on device md1, logical block 7006850
<snip>
Nov  2 18:48:46 roar kernel: EXT4-fs warning (device md1): ext4_end_bio:250: I/O error writing to inode 12 (offset 26737115136 size 524288 starting block 7006848)

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ascendant
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PostPosted: Wed Nov 14, 2012 7:23 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

This issue was resolved by disabling native command queueing on the SATA controller:
Kill all WD NCQ bash script:
#!/bin/bash
devs=$(ls -1 /dev/disk/by-id/ata-WDC* | grep -v part)
get_dev(){
   ls -l $1 | grep -Po '(?<=\/)sd.'
}
echo "$devs" | while read target
do   dev=$(get_dev $target)
   echo 1 > /sys/block/$dev/device/queue_depth
done

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miroR
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Joined: 05 Mar 2008
Posts: 260

PostPosted: Thu Jan 10, 2013 8:42 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

ascendant wrote:
This issue was resolved by disabling native command queueing on the SATA controller:
Kill all WD NCQ bash script:
#!/bin/bash
devs=$(ls -1 /dev/disk/by-id/ata-WDC* | grep -v part)
get_dev(){
   ls -l $1 | grep -Po '(?<=\/)sd.'
}
echo "$devs" | while read target
do   dev=$(get_dev $target)
   echo 1 > /sys/block/$dev/device/queue_depth
done

I see...
Hmm... Is it worth the cheap money (I might go for the 2TB capacity because higher end equivalents are too expensive...)?
These HDDs you have work fine with these workarounds?
Can you recommend them?
Thanx!
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ascendant
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PostPosted: Fri Jan 11, 2013 6:55 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Nobody should recommend WD green for RAID. You should decide for yourself whether you accept the consequences of using WD greens for an array.

also, the workarounds with regard to NCQ is specific to my machine, and you should not apply it to your machine unnecessarily.

You should also definitely not just run that script without exactly understanding the effect it would have on your system. In the end, the array on my system is now stable. It includes the 3 WD greens and one Samsung HD203WI

I chose the 2TB size because larger drives are ridiculously unreliable, while 2TB drives are only moderately unreliable.
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