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needlern1
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PostPosted: Tue Aug 10, 2010 9:34 pm    Post subject: VFS: Cannot open root device "sda2" or unknown-blo Reply with quote

Currently booting with a genkernel. Compiled a new 2.6.34-gentoo-r1, using kernel-seed for it. Get the following message (without it listing the available partitions)
Code:
VFS: Cannot open root device "sda1" or unknown-block(0,0)
Please append a correct "root=" boot option
Kernel panic - not syncing: VFS: Unable to mount root fs on unknown block(0,0)

From grub
Code:
# This is a sample grub.conf for use with Genkernel, per the Gentoo handbook
# http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&chap=10#doc_chap2
# If you are not using Genkernel and you need help creating this file, you
# should consult the handbook. Alternatively, consult the grub.conf.sample that
# is included with the Grub documentation.

default 0
timeout 10
splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz

title Genkernel-2.6.31-gentoo-r6
root (hd0,0)
kernel /boot/kernel-genkernel-x86-2.6.31-gentoo-r6 root=/dev/ram0 init=linuxrc ramdisk=8192 real_root=/dev/sda2
initrd /boot/initramfs-genkernel-x86-2.6.31-gentoo-r6

title Gentoo Linux 2.6.31-gentoo-r6
root (hd0,0)
kernel /boot/kernel-2.6.31-gentoo-r6 root=/dev/sda2 vga=791
#kernel /boot/kernel-genkernel-x86-2.6.24-gentoo-r5 root=/dev/ram0 real_root=/dev/sda3
#initrd /boot/initramfs-genkernel-x86-2.6.24-gentoo-r5

title Gentoo Linux 2.6.34-gentoo-r1
root (hd0,0)
kernel /boot/kernel-2.6.34-gentoo-r1 root=/dev/sda2 vga=791

(I never did get the 2.6.31-gentoo-r6 to boot either)
From fstab
Code:
# <fs>                  <mountpoint>    <type>          <opts>          <dump/pass>

# NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
/dev/sda1               /boot           ext2            noauto,noatime  1 2
/dev/sda2               /               ext4            noatime         0 1
/dev/sda5               none            swap            sw              0 0
/dev/sda6               /var            ext4            noatime         0 1
/dev/sda7               /usr            ext4            noatime         0 1
/dev/sda8               /home           ext4            noatime         0 1
/dev/sr0                /mnt/dvdrw      auto            auto,user,rw    0 0
#/dev/fd0               /mnt/floppy     auto            noauto          0 0

# glibc 2.2 and above expects tmpfs to be mounted at /dev/shm for
# POSIX shared memory (shm_open, shm_unlink).
# (tmpfs is a dynamically expandable/shrinkable ramdisk, and will
#  use almost no memory if not populated with files)
shm                     /dev/shm        tmpfs           nodev,nosuid,noexec     0

#file -s
Code:
/dev/sda: x86 boot sector; GRand Unified Bootloader, stage1 version 0x3, stage2 address 0x2000, stage2 segment 0x200; partition 1: ID=0x83, active, starthead 1, startsector 63, 273042 sectors; partition 2: ID=0x83, starthead 0, startsector 273105, 41961780 sectors; partition 3: ID=0x5, starthead 254, startsector 42234885, 934533180 sectors, code offset 0x48

#lspci -n
Code:
00:00.0 0600: 8086:2a40 (rev 07)                                                                                   
00:02.0 0300: 8086:2a42 (rev 07)                                                                                   
00:02.1 0380: 8086:2a43 (rev 07)                                                                                   
00:1a.0 0c03: 8086:2937 (rev 03)                                                                                   
00:1a.1 0c03: 8086:2938 (rev 03)                                                                                   
00:1a.7 0c03: 8086:293c (rev 03)                                                                                   
00:1b.0 0403: 8086:293e (rev 03)                                                                                   
00:1c.0 0604: 8086:2940 (rev 03)                                                                                   
00:1c.1 0604: 8086:2942 (rev 03)                                                                                   
00:1c.2 0604: 8086:2944 (rev 03)                                                                                   
00:1d.0 0c03: 8086:2934 (rev 03)                                                                                   
00:1d.1 0c03: 8086:2935 (rev 03)                                                                                   
00:1d.2 0c03: 8086:2936 (rev 03)                                                                                   
00:1d.3 0c03: 8086:2939 (rev 03)                                                                                   
00:1d.7 0c03: 8086:293a (rev 03)                                                                                   
00:1e.0 0604: 8086:2448 (rev 93)                                                                                   
00:1f.0 0601: 8086:2919 (rev 03)                                                                                   
00:1f.2 0106: 8086:2929 (rev 03)                                                                                   
00:1f.3 0c05: 8086:2930 (rev 03)                                                                                   
04:00.0 0280: 8086:4232                                                                                             
05:00.0 0200: 14e4:1698 (rev 10)

#lspci -k
Code:
00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation Mobile 4 Series Chipset Memory Controller Hub (rev 07)
        Kernel driver in use: agpgart-intel                                                 
        Kernel modules: intel-agp                                                           
00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation Mobile 4 Series Chipset Integrated Graphics Controller (rev 07)
00:02.1 Display controller: Intel Corporation Mobile 4 Series Chipset Integrated Graphics Controller (rev 07)       
00:1a.0 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) USB UHCI Controller #4 (rev 03)                     
        Kernel driver in use: uhci_hcd                                                                             
        Kernel modules: uhci-hcd                                                                                   
00:1a.1 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) USB UHCI Controller #5 (rev 03)                     
        Kernel driver in use: uhci_hcd                                                                             
        Kernel modules: uhci-hcd                                                                                   
00:1a.7 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) USB2 EHCI Controller #2 (rev 03)                     
        Kernel driver in use: ehci_hcd                                                                             
        Kernel modules: ehci-hcd                                                                                   
00:1b.0 Audio device: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) HD Audio Controller (rev 03)                           
        Kernel driver in use: HDA Intel
        Kernel modules: snd-hda-intel
00:1c.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) PCI Express Port 1 (rev 03)
        Kernel driver in use: pcieport-driver
00:1c.1 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) PCI Express Port 2 (rev 03)
        Kernel driver in use: pcieport-driver
00:1c.2 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) PCI Express Port 3 (rev 03)
        Kernel driver in use: pcieport-driver
00:1d.0 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) USB UHCI Controller #1 (rev 03)
        Kernel driver in use: uhci_hcd
        Kernel modules: uhci-hcd
00:1d.1 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) USB UHCI Controller #2 (rev 03)
        Kernel driver in use: uhci_hcd
        Kernel modules: uhci-hcd
00:1d.2 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) USB UHCI Controller #3 (rev 03)
        Kernel driver in use: uhci_hcd
        Kernel modules: uhci-hcd
00:1d.3 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) USB UHCI Controller #6 (rev 03)
        Kernel driver in use: uhci_hcd
        Kernel modules: uhci-hcd
00:1d.7 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) USB2 EHCI Controller #1 (rev 03)
        Kernel driver in use: ehci_hcd
        Kernel modules: ehci-hcd
00:1e.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82801 Mobile PCI Bridge (rev 93)
00:1f.0 ISA bridge: Intel Corporation ICH9M LPC Interface Controller (rev 03)
00:1f.2 SATA controller: Intel Corporation ICH9M/M-E SATA AHCI Controller (rev 03)
        Kernel driver in use: ahci
        Kernel modules: ahci
00:1f.3 SMBus: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) SMBus Controller (rev 03)
        Kernel driver in use: i801_smbus
        Kernel modules: i2c-i801
04:00.0 Network controller: Intel Corporation Device 4232
        Kernel driver in use: iwlagn
        Kernel modules: iwlagn
05:00.0 Ethernet controller: Broadcom Corporation NetLink BCM5784M Gigabit Ethernet PCIe (rev 10)
        Kernel driver in use: tg3
        Kernel modules: tg3

# .config
Code:
http://pastebin.com/KhGzLV2V

One more thing. I did enable the LB(DMA?) line for the ext4 file system.
I'm sure it must be some simple something I've missed.
TIA
Bill
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Jaglover
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PostPosted: Tue Aug 10, 2010 9:41 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

... unknown-block(0,0)

This usually means support fro your HDD controller is not built into kernel.
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NeddySeagoon
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PostPosted: Tue Aug 10, 2010 10:01 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

needlern1,

As Jaglover says, you need some of this
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needlern1
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 11, 2010 12:55 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thank you Jaglover and NeddySeagoon.
After redoing my kernel from NeddySeagoon's Rough Guide and rebooting, I now get the following panic:
Code:
VFS: cannot open root device "sda2" or unknown block (8,2)

I've also noted on the last couple of boot attempts the following
Code:
ata5: SATA link down (SStatus 0 SControl 300) and it repeats the same results a couple
of lines later for ata6
I've left the
Code:
<*>   Intel ESB, ICH, PIIX3, PIIX4 PATA/SATA support

in and also the
Code:
<*>   AHCI SATA support

Where in the world would block (8,2) come from?
TIA,
Bill
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 11, 2010 1:02 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

This usually indicates support for root filesystem is not built into kernel. Ext4 in your case.

8 is SCSI/SATA driver, 2 is second partition on first HD (sda2). Getting this means your kernel is accessing hard drive now.


Last edited by Jaglover on Wed Aug 11, 2010 7:43 pm; edited 1 time in total
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needlern1
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 11, 2010 1:39 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Jaglover wrote
Quote:
This usually indicates support for root filesystem is not built into kernel. Ext4 in your case.

From my .config
Code:
CONFIG_EXT4_FS=y
# CONFIG_EXT4_FS_XATTR is not set
# CONFIG_EXT4_DEBUG is not set

Thanks Jaglover.
Bill
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 11, 2010 2:08 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hmm ...

Any chance you forgot to mount /boot when installing new kernel?

Any chance your hard drives are not recognized as expected and sda is another drive with no Gentoo? This may happen if playing with boot order in BIOS.
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 11, 2010 2:16 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

No, I'm very careful about that. I also just checked the date/time stamp, in /boot, and it is correct for when I compiled it this a.m.
To make sure I've got the right kernel
Code:
# ls -la /usr/src/linux
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 Aug 10 16:03 /usr/src/linux -> linux-2.6.34-gentoo-r1

Thanks Jaglover,
Bill
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 11, 2010 3:01 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

needlern1,

you will get this error also if your kernel does not find Ext4 filesystem because it is accessing wrong drive. If you have more than one drive you could disconnect the other one and try again.
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 11, 2010 3:10 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Theres a few suggestions here I could make with regards to fine tuning the grub.conf file and fstab.
I've experienced similar issues occasionally with grub.conf configured as you have it using the initrd to "temp" mount root= using a ramdisk. essentially it's entirely unnessesary. Perhaps attempt to use the following examples to aid your quest for reaching the holy grail named init() :)

grub.conf needs only to be this simple to boot
Code:
ali3n@gateway ~ $ cat /boot/grub/grub.conf
# This is a sample grub.conf for use with Genkernel, per the Gentoo handbook
# http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&chap=10#doc_chap2
# If you are not using Genkernel and you need help creating this file, you
# should consult the handbook. Alternatively, consult the grub.conf.sample that
# is included with the Grub documentation.

default 0
timeout 10
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz

title Hardened Gentoo Linux amd64
root (hd0,0)
kernel (hd0,0)/vmlinuz-2.6.32-hardened-r9 ro root=/dev/sda3

title Hardened Gentoo Linux backup amd64
root (hd0,0)
kernel (hd0,0)/vmlinuz-2.6.29-hardened.old ro root=/dev/sda3


as well for fstab in researching the various defaults supported for fstab with ext4 I recall running across some advice stating that using noatime with ext4 can be a catalyst for some bad juju with file system stability. I'd suggest altering noatime and just using defaults like the example below. In almost 8 years of gentoo-fu one very useful phrase vapier kindly informed me of at some time...

"I enabled it because it looks cool"

Code:

ali3n@gateway ~ $ cat /etc/fstab
# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
#
# noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
# needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
# efficiency).  It's safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
# switch between notail / tail freely.
#
# The root filesystem should have a pass number of either 0 or 1.
# All other filesystems should have a pass number of 0 or greater than 1.
#
# See the manpage fstab(5) for more information.
#

# <fs>                  <mountpoint>    <type>          <opts>          <dump/pass>

# NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
/dev/sda1               /boot           ext3            noauto,noatime  1 2
/dev/sda3               /               ext4            defaults        0 1
/dev/sda2               none            swap            sw              0 0
/dev/cdrom              /mnt/cdrom      auto            noauto,ro       0 0
#/dev/fd0               /mnt/floppy     auto            noauto          0 0

# glibc 2.2 and above expects tmpfs to be mounted at /dev/shm for
# POSIX shared memory (shm_open, shm_unlink).
# (tmpfs is a dynamically expandable/shrinkable ramdisk, and will
#  use almost no memory if not populated with files)
shm                     /dev/shm        tmpfs           nodev,nosuid,noexec     0 0

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Jaglover
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 11, 2010 3:43 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I believe this is relevant piece of his grub.conf, looks simple enough.
Code:
title Gentoo Linux 2.6.34-gentoo-r1
root (hd0,0)
kernel /boot/kernel-2.6.34-gentoo-r1 root=/dev/sda2 vga=791

His kernel is unable to read / - thus anything located there, like fstab, is not important, at least at this stage of boot.
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 11, 2010 3:53 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

One other useful aid I used to frequently provide is kernel config templates for make menuconfig. Noted it will only be a template but this config has been rock solid for me running a hardened web server and wireless gateway for 6 months. It will need some adjustment for your hardware but it may offer a head start. It's configured for hardened-sources but when loaded into gentoo-sources with make menuconfig the hardened values will be stripped making the remaining config variables usable.

From within your chroot from the livecd merely do the following to install my kernel config template
Code:
cd /usr/src/linux && wget http://www.eliteitminds.com/.config && make menuconfig"


Also just noticed your using genkernel which may be a generic approach to building a bootable system but in my experience has been highly unpredictable for stability. configuring your own kernel specific to the needs of your system will always produce far better results. genkernel adds a lot of bloat to kernel configurations or often misconfigure several key kernel config parameters which can cause issues with instability or possibly the situation your currently experiencing.

Some parts of my legacy guide on building stage 1 gentoo may also be good for some reference pointers. 190,000 page views after 6 years :)

https://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-189250-highlight-developers+method.html
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 11, 2010 5:47 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

@ali3nx - thanks for your input. I boot with genkernel because it works. Soon as I can get a bootable kernel I won't need it. As I mentioned in my opening post, I used Pappy's kernel-seed to build my kernel. I modified my fstab replacing "noatime" with "defaults" for all of my ext4 partitions. But as Jaglover pointed out, fstab isn't read that early in boot. I looked at your Stage 1 guide and recognized it from years back. I've used it numerous times when I was having to do an install. Always did stage 1's.

@Jaglover -
Quote:
you will get this error also if your kernel does not find Ext4 filesystem because it is accessing wrong drive. If you have more than one drive you could disconnect the other one and try again.

This laptop (see sig line) only has 1 500gig drive. Thanks again,
Bill
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 11, 2010 6:15 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I am seeing exactly the same problem with 2.6.35 on my Sil3112 SATA controller and / on ext4 (no seperate /boot partition). The relevant drivers are definitely compiled into the kernel (Sil SATA is under the new AT_BMDMA option), but no joy so far. I've built a new kernel .config from scratch, and gone through it several times checking for sanity, and I simply cannot see anything obviously wrong. 2.6.34 backup kernel boots fine, so grub/fstab appear ok.

This is slowly driving me a little bit insane.
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 11, 2010 6:42 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

agent_jdh wrote:
I am seeing exactly the same problem with 2.6.35 on my Sil3112 SATA controller and / on ext4 (no seperate /boot partition). The relevant drivers are definitely compiled into the kernel (Sil SATA is under the new AT_BMDMA option), but no joy so far. I've built a new kernel .config from scratch, and gone through it several times checking for sanity, and I simply cannot see anything obviously wrong. 2.6.34 backup kernel boots fine, so grub/fstab appear ok.

This is slowly driving me a little bit insane.


One issue i've run into before with ext4 is the kernel option to force ext2/3 to use the ext4 driver has occasionally made more than one of my kernel builds fail to mount rootfs and kernel panic.
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NeddySeagoon
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 11, 2010 6:45 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

agent_jdh,

What is your unknown-block (X,Y) error. The numbers are normally but not always the major and minor numbers of the device the the kernel is trying to mount as root.
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Jaglover
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 11, 2010 7:11 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Pretty much out of ideas, is
Code:
PC BIOS (MSDOS partition tables) support
enabled? Or,
Code:
EFI GUID Partition support
maybe?
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agent_jdh
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 11, 2010 9:23 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

NeddySeagoon wrote:
agent_jdh,

What is your unknown-block (X,Y) error. The numbers are normally but not always the major and minor numbers of the device the the kernel is trying to mount as root.


I'm getting "Cannot open root device "sda2" or unknown-block (0,0)"

/dev/sda2 is my correct root device, but (0,0) does not seem to tally with that. The actual kernel panic line says "VFS: Unable to mount root fs on unknown-block (0,0)"

relevant section from /boot/grub/grub.conf -

Code:
default 0
timeout 15
splashimage=(hd0,1)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz

title Gentoo Linux
root (hd0,1)
kernel (hd0,1)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/sda2


/boot/bzImage is just a symlink to my actual kernel image, and /dev/sda1 is, sadly, that other pc operating system.
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krinn
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 11, 2010 11:09 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

nobody suggest it so...

gives up with .34 or .35 they are brand new, except for a specific need, just get a a lower (never said old as a fuck) kernel version.
i like the .33
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NeddySeagoon
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PostPosted: Thu Aug 12, 2010 7:35 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

agent_jdh.

Code:
unknown-block (0,0)
means that the hard drive controller code is missing from your kernel, or you have made it <M> instead of <*>.

This code is in two parts, the SCSI Disk high level part and the chipset part, normally in the SATA menu.
You need both parts for the kernel to talk to your HDD.
Be aware that if you are installing in a Virtual Machine of some sort, this may not be true. The Fusion drivers used by some VMs are on their own menu, not the SATA menu.
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agent_jdh
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PostPosted: Thu Aug 12, 2010 10:48 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

NeddySeagoon wrote:
agent_jdh.

Code:
unknown-block (0,0)
means that the hard drive controller code is missing from your kernel, or you have made it <M> instead of <*>.

This code is in two parts, the SCSI Disk high level part and the chipset part, normally in the SATA menu.
You need both parts for the kernel to talk to your HDD.
Be aware that if you are installing in a Virtual Machine of some sort, this may not be true. The Fusion drivers used by some VMs are on their own menu, not the SATA menu.


That's all been checked and triple-checked. Essentially, nothing kernel config-wise that I can see has altered, SCSI disk support is compiled in, and in the new ATA_BMDMA section I have selected the Sil SATA driver. Even using make oldconfig, answering Yes to the ATA_BMDMA question correctly selected my chipset drivers (Sil SATA in the kernel, nForce PATA as a module for my dvd burner).

Either there is a.n.other option, be it in the SCSI section or the SATA section, that is required to get this to work, or it's just, (temporarily, one hopes), busticated for Sil3112A chipsets.
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PostPosted: Fri Aug 13, 2010 8:48 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

agent_jdh,

That tells me that you are building one kernel and booting another.

Copying the kernel to /boot went wrong ... typo, /boot not mounted.
grub.conf is not pointing to your newly made and installed kernel ...

Check the time stamps on the following files
/usr/src/linux/.config This should be the oldest file
/usr/src/linux/arch/x86/boot/bzImage This is the kernel made from the above .config, so it must be newer.
/boot/<nice-kernel-name> should have the same timestamp as the file above ... its a copy of it.

Look in /boot/grub/grub.conf to check that you are loading /boot/<nice-kernel-name>
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PostPosted: Sat Aug 14, 2010 1:07 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Neddy,

It all checks out, the timestamps and everything are fine, but still it's not booting. It's evident;y trying to load the right kernel, just that it goes awry when it loads the SATA driver and tries to mount the root filesystem.
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PostPosted: Sat Aug 14, 2010 10:07 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

agent_jdh,

Show me. Post the following things:-
1. Your lspci output
2. The output of
Code:
ls -l /boot
for your own boot
3. Your grub.conf
4. Your kernel .config file ... thats best on a pastebin.

emerge wgetpaste then wgetpaste /path/to/file and post the URL
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PostPosted: Mon Aug 16, 2010 11:09 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Neddy,

I circumvented the problem by retiring my old AthlonXP and getting an Intel Core i5 box. The Athlon had other issues anyway, as well as it being about 6 years old or something.

2.6.35 boots fine on the new box with the AHCI SATA driver (Intel P55 chipset)

Ta
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