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Hauser
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PostPosted: Mon Dec 13, 2004 7:31 pm    Post subject: Gentoo 硬盤安裝法 Reply with quote

註:2005.1和2006.0的LiveCD現已經可以引導,無需再使用1.2的minimal LiveCD或Knoppix了。詳情請見英文版。
為慶祝中文版面的開辦,我寫了個簡便的安裝法,給那些〝心急〞的新手做個參考。我的靈感來自:https://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=265226http://www.linuxsir.org/bbs/showthread.php?s=&threadid=133814,所以在這裡先向kohno和Fleta表示感謝。 另外有個英文版在此處

假設:您只有windows,沒有軟碟,光碟機,沒裝vmware,但卻裝了Grub for DOS
首先找個mirror下載一個1.2的minimal映像檔,如:http://ftp.isu.edu.tw/pub/Linux/Gentoo/releases/historical/x86/1.2/livecd/gentoo-ix86-1.2.iso
約16MB左右吧;然後下個2004.3 LiveCD 的映像檔:http://ftp.isu.edu.tw/pub/Linux/Gentoo/releases/x86/2004.3/livecd/install-x86-universal-2004.3-r1.iso
找一個vfat的分區,將1.2的minimal映像檔裡的isolinux拷貝過去,然後建一個gentoo的目錄,把2004.3 LiveCD 裡distfiles,snapshots,stages這幾個目錄拷貝過去。

設置grub:
Code:
title From HD
root (hd0,6) (按自己的情況改分區號)
kernel /isolinux/kernel devfs=nomount vga=normal load_ramdisk=1 prompt_ramdisk=0 ramdisk_size=22000 root=/dev/ram0 rw
initrd /isolinux/rescue.gz

將以下幾個scripts也拷至那個gentoo的目錄裡:
step1:
Code:
#mke2fs -j /dev/hda10   #(initialize the boot partition)
#mkswap /dev/hda8   #(initialize the swap partition)
swapon /dev/hda8   #(Activate the swap partition)
#mke2fs -j /dev/hda12   #(if you want to use ext3 for your root partition)
mkreiserfs -f /dev/hda12    #(if you want to use reiserfs)
#mkfs.xfs -f /dev/hda12   #(if you want to use xfs)
mount /dev/hda12 /mnt/linux   #(Mount the root partition)
mkdir /mnt/linux/boot   #(Create the boot mountpoint)
mount /dev/hda10 /mnt/linux/boot   #(Mount the boot partition)
echo "Now set your system time!  For instance, to set the date to October 29th, 16:21 in the year 2004, type: date 102916212004"

step2:
Code:
cd /mnt/linux   #(Go to the mountpoint where the root partition has been mounted)
tar xjvpf /mnt/win/gentoo/stages/stage3-x86-2004.3.tar.bz2   #(Extract a stage3 tarball...)
tar -xvjf /mnt/win/gentoo/snapshots/portage-20041022.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/linux/usr   #(unpack a portage tree)
mkdir /mnt/linux/usr/portage/distfiles   #(Create a directory for distfiles)
cp /mnt/win/gentoo/distfiles/* /mnt/linux/usr/portage/distfiles/   #(copy over distfiles)
cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/linux/etc/resolv.conf   #(Copy over nameserver information)
mount -t proc none /mnt/linux/proc   #(Mount the proc filesystem)
cp /mnt/win/gentoo/step3 /mnt/linux    #(Copy over the step3 script)
echo "
Now you can run step3!"
chroot /mnt/linux /bin/bash   #(Chroot into the new environment)

step3:
Code:
env-update && source /etc/profile   #(Load the necessary variables)
ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Hongkong /etc/localtime   #(Set timezone information)
#nano -w /etc/make.conf   #(Optional: edit make.conf)
nano -w /etc/fstab    #(edit fstab)
echo tux > /etc/hostname   #(Set the system hostname)
echo home.net > /etc/dnsdomainname   #(Set the system domainname)
echo nis.home.net > /etc/nisdomainname   #(Set the system nisdomainname)
echo "192.168.1.1     tux.home.net       tux" >> /etc/hosts   #(Set the hostsfile)
echo "Have fun with Gentoo!
" >> /etc/issue   #(Set the greeting message)
rc-update add domainname default   #(Domain name init script)
rc-update add numlock default   #(Switch on numlock)
nano -w /etc/conf.d/net    #(Setup networking; dhcp-users should set iface_eth0="dhcp")
rc-update add net.eth0 default   #(Start networking automatically at boot)
nano -w /etc/rc.conf    #(Further system configurations)
echo "
Now you need to set your root password!"
passwd
echo "tts/0" >> /etc/securetty   #(Let root to be able to log on through the serial console)
emerge metalog   #(install a system logger)
rc-update add metalog default   #(add it to the default runlevel)
#emerge xfsprogs    #(if you've chosen to use xfs)
emerge reiserfsprogs    #(if you've chosen to use reiserfs)
emerge dhcpcd   #(if you need to use dhcp)
emerge genkernel   #(prepare to compile a kernel)
emerge gentoo-dev-sources   #(install a kernel source)
genkernel --menuconfig all   #(save your config when exit)
emerge hotplug   #(install hotplug)

rc-update add hotplug default   #(Add it to the default runlevel)
cd /boot   #(Optional: it's just a precautionary step)
ln -s . boot
#emerge grub   #(If you want to keep your Grub-for-Dos,skip the following)
#echo "default 0
#timeout 15
#color cyan/blue white/blue

#title=Gentoo Linux 2.6.9-r1
#root (hd0,0)
#kernel (hd0,9)/boot/kernel-2.6.9-gentoo-r1 root=/dev/hda12 video=vesafb:ywrap,mtrr,1024x768-16@85
#initrd (hd0,9)/boot/initrd-2.6.9-gentoo-r1" >> /boot/grub/grub.conf
#nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf #just to check
#grub
echo "OK, your system is ready, now you may exit and reboot!"

注意要根據自己的具體情況改一改這幾個scripts,真是用的話先要做好資料備份。雖然在我的機器上試過沒問題,但不保證在閣下的機子上不出事呦! :wink:

首先你得準備好linux分區,你可以在windows裡用Partition Magic或進了安裝介面用fdisk。fdisk的用法手冊裡說得很清楚,我就不寫了。

從Grub裡用"From HD"那項開機,按了幾次Enter後你會看到個提示符。掛載好那個vfat分區,然後執行step1:
Code:
# mount -t vfat /dev/hda7 /mnt/win
# /mnt/win/gentoo/step1

設置好系統時間後,執行step2:
Code:
# /mnt/win/gentoo/step2

當你看到'Now you can run step3!'的語句,你已經進入chroot的環境了,然後執行step3:
Code:
# ls           (你會看到確實進入了chroot的環境了)
#./step3

首先會提示你修改fstab,然後是/etc/conf.d/net, /etc/rc.conf等。設定好root密碼後大約十幾二十分你會看到menuconfig的畫面,配置好kernel後差不多就可以了。如果你想繼續用Grub-for-DOS,Gentoo的grub可以不裝,但是Grub-for-DOS別忘了為Gentoo加個選項呦。 :)

整個安裝過程應不會超過一個小時,由於基本上是自動的,也免去了敲打指令之苦。不過輕鬆之餘還希望新手仔細看看手冊,搞清楚每個步驟的含意,以進一步瞭解Gentoo。
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Last edited by Hauser on Tue Feb 28, 2006 7:54 pm; edited 2 times in total
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PostPosted: Tue Dec 14, 2004 1:13 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

"心急" 的新手们有福了 ;)
受用了的大伙儿记得回来给 Hauser 一个吻 :twisted:
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PostPosted: Tue Dec 14, 2004 4:38 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

哎呀,你快我一步了,我也正在实验类似的安装法呢,气死我了! :oops:
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PostPosted: Tue Dec 14, 2004 4:53 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

应该不支持stage1吧?
我用gentoo早期的livecd装gentoo 2004.3的时候就出现过
内核版本过低有些东西不能编译的事。
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PostPosted: Tue Dec 14, 2004 7:09 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

如果你願意從stage1開始,就不能算“心急”的新手了。 :)
基本上整個安裝程序只須編譯xfsprogs,reiserfsprogs,dhcpcd genkernel,gentoo-dev-sources,及hotplug這幾個包,用的是liveCD裡的源碼包(即無需網路),我自己試的時候非常順利,沒出過任何問題。
不過如果你想從stage1開始定製系統,同時又確實沒有光軟碟的話,可以考慮先用這個方法裝好基本系統,然後等重啟進入新系統後再重建toolchain和system。
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PostPosted: Wed Dec 15, 2004 9:47 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hauser wrote:
不過如果你想從stage1開始定製系統,同時又確實沒有光軟碟的話,可以考慮先用這個方法裝好基本系統,然後等重啟進入新系統後再重建toolchain和system。

你是说进入新系统后再bootstrap,然后emerge -e system?
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PostPosted: Wed Dec 15, 2004 5:51 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

沒錯!這樣裝出來的系統和直接從stage1安裝是差不多的(甚至更加徹底,請看此貼),不過由於之前已經裝了幾個包(stage3+reiserfsprogs+dhcpcd+hotplug等),你得emerge -e world才能編完所有的包。

具體地說,你得首先修改make.conf,尤其是CFLAGS和USE。比如你可能想用NPTL而不是linuxthreads,你可以在USE裡加入"nptl nptlonly"。Bootstrap之前還得替換linuxheaders(如果是直接從2004.3的stage1包做,應該可以省略這一步了):
Code:
# emerge -C linux-headers
# emerge --oneshot --nodeps linux26-headers

另外還有個步驟是值得一做的,即精簡glibc的locales;glibc支持的300多個locales我們可能會用到或嘗試的頂多也就10幾個,清除掉那些不用的locales起碼可以省下幾十MB的空間呢。首先安裝localepurge工具:
Code:
# emerge localepurge

在清除多餘的locales之前你得將/etc/locale.nopurge裡"NEEDSCONFIGFIRST"那行註釋掉,最後那段的那些locales也註釋掉或刪掉,然後執行:
Code:
# localepurge

接著為重新編譯glibc(Bootstrap程序中會做的)做準備。啟動"userlocales"的USE:
Code:
# echo 'sys-libs/glibc userlocales' >> /etc/portage/package.use

編輯/etc/locales.build並加入想要用的locales,像這樣:
Code:
en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
en_US/ISO-8859-1
zh_CN.GB18030/GB18030
zh_CN.GBK/GBK
zh_CN.UTF-8/UTF-8
zh_CN/GB2312
zh_HK.UTF-8/UTF-8
zh_HK/BIG5-HKSCS
zh_TW.EUC-TW/EUC-TW
zh_TW.UTF-8/UTF-8
zh_TW/BIG5

然後就可以Bootstrap了:
Code:
# /usr/portage/scripts/bootstrap.sh

完了之後你可以檢查一下之前做過的工夫是否有效:
Code:
# /lib/libc.so.6                       (應顯示有“Native POSIX Threads Library”的字樣)
# cd /usr/share/locale ; du -h         (Bootstrap之前做一次,現在再做一次以比較大小)
# locale -a                            (檢查一下是否編譯出了你設置的那些locales)

如果你發現那些locales不對,那是因為bootstrap的時候glibc編譯了2次,第一次按你的設定編,但完了之後你的/etc/locales.build可能給覆蓋了,取而待之的是英法德的一些locales (從stage1開始安裝很有可能發生這種事,這是個Bug);不過不要緊,只要再次編輯/etc/locales.build,重編系統即可。Bootstrap的程序令到你的toolchain得以優化,現在是時候用它來重編整個系統了:
Code:
# emerge -e world

這個相當於從stage2到stage3的過程。
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Last edited by Hauser on Wed Dec 22, 2004 11:48 am; edited 5 times in total
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PostPosted: Thu Dec 16, 2004 12:03 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hauser wrote:
沒錯!這樣裝出來的系統和直接從stage1安裝是差不多的(甚至更加徹底,請看此貼),不過由於之前已經裝了幾個包(stage3+reiserfsprogs+dhcpcd+hotplug等),你得emerge -e world才能編完所有的包。

呵呵,stage3+bootstrap+rebuild tree,这可能会成为以后玩家的preferred的安装方法啊。
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PostPosted: Fri Dec 17, 2004 11:55 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

我用 livecd 2004.3 的isolinux的gentoo 和gentoo.igz试验就不行,不知道为什么.
我的做法是:把gentoo和gentoo.igz拷到/boot,grub修改如下:
Code:
title gentoo Setup
root (hd0,0)
kernel /gentoo devfs=nomount vga=normal load_ramdisk=1 prompt_ramdisk=0 ramdisk_size=22000 root=/dev/ram0 rw
initrd /gentoo.igz

出错为
Code:

Kernel panic - not syncing:VFS: Unable to mount root fs on unknown-block(3.2)

ps:我的分区是reiserfsr的,/boot在sda1上
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PostPosted: Fri Dec 17, 2004 7:48 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

1.4以後的LiveCD都不可以這樣用,要不然我不會建議大家去下1.2的LiveCD。從kohno那貼你可以看到他還因此而發牢騷呢! :wink:
當然有些其他的LiveCD是可以從硬碟啟動的,比如Knoppix便可以 https://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?p=1889771#1889771,不過Gentoo自己的LiveCD搞到不能這樣啟動實在是有點遺憾啊! :?
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PostPosted: Sat Dec 18, 2004 8:51 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

补充一下,对于那些想装GRP包的人,可以下载packages-x86-2004.3-r1.iso,然后挂到/usr/portage/package下(没有package目录的自己建一个):
Code:
# mount -o loop /path/to/packages-x86-2004.3-r1.iso /usr/portage/package

然后
Code:
# emerge -k packagename

就可以了。不过得用LiveCD里的snapshot,所以先别emerge sync呀!
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PostPosted: Sun Dec 19, 2004 5:50 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

To whom it may concern: here's a description of how I installed a new Gentoo within an existing Gentoo, an experiment that was no hassle! :)
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PostPosted: Tue Dec 21, 2004 4:21 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

请问如果我把gcc换成3.4.x要重编整个系统吗?
是不是emerge -e world就可以啦?
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PostPosted: Wed Dec 22, 2004 6:12 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

To get the benefits that gcc-3.4.x provides (I guess that's what you really want :wink: ), you do need to rebuild world, but 'emerge -e world' may not be enough because you need to rebuild your toolchain first, so it's better to 'emerge -e system && emerge -e world'. Here's a guide: HOWTO Migrating to GCC 3.4
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PostPosted: Thu Dec 23, 2004 6:57 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hauser wrote:
To get the benefits that gcc-3.4.x provides (I guess that's what you really want :wink: ), you do need to rebuild world, but 'emerge -e world' may not be enough because you need to rebuild your toolchain first, so it's better to 'emerge -e system && emerge -e world'. Here's a guide: HOWTO Migrating to GCC 3.4

呵呵,那个guide推荐的方法是:
Code:
# emerge -e system && emerge -e system && emerge -e world && emerge -e world

kohno兄要三思啊! :lol:
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PostPosted: Sat Jan 15, 2005 9:23 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

为什么我按照这个方法安装gentoo后,进入字符界面
#ls /boot
#ls /root
# ls ......
里面什么东西都没有啊?望高手指教。

P.S:我是菜鸟。
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PostPosted: Sat Jan 15, 2005 9:53 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

By default, the /boot partition is not mounted on boot in Gentoo for security reasons; if you would like it automatically mounted on boot, you may switch on the "auto" option for the /boot partition in /etc/fstab, like this:
Code:
/dev/hda9               /boot           ext2            auto,noatime          1 2

If you do
Code:
# cd
# ls -a

you should see some config files in /root. If there isn't any ordinary files in /root, it just means the root user hasn't put anything in it yet.

BTW have you created a normal user? In case you didn't, issue the following command to add a user:
Code:
# useradd -m -G users,wheel,audio,games,portage -s /bin/bash punkid
# passwd punkid

After you login as user punkid, if you do
Code:
$ cd && ls

you'll see your home directory is also empty, but there's nothing wrong with that, since you haven't put anything in it yet, so it'll be a good idea to creat some directories for future usage:
Code:
$ mkdir documents tmp music

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PostPosted: Fri Jan 21, 2005 5:09 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Fleta wrote:
Hauser wrote:
沒錯!這樣裝出來的系統和直接從stage1安裝是差不多的(甚至更加徹底,請看此貼),不過由於之前已經裝了幾個包(stage3+reiserfsprogs+dhcpcd+hotplug等),你得emerge -e world才能編完所有的包。

呵呵,stage3+bootstrap+rebuild tree,这可能会成为以后玩家的preferred的安装方法啊。

没想到真给你说中了,这种安装方法似乎开始流行起来了! :)
Installing Gentoo: Stage 1 NPTL on a Stage 3 Tarball
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PostPosted: Sun Jan 23, 2005 8:20 am    Post subject: I got another problem Reply with quote

sorry i got another problem.
我把 USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe 加入了step3,但是事实上我无法使用adsl-setup进行adsl的配置。what's wrong with that?
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PostPosted: Tue Jan 25, 2005 12:28 am    Post subject: U盘启动安装? Reply with quote

现在的U盘的主流容量可以放下一个mini光盘了吧,不知道可不可以考入U盘代光盘启动
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