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wgwnxu
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Joined: 15 Jan 2012
Posts: 20

PostPosted: Sat Jan 28, 2012 1:59 pm    Post subject: 倔驴和绅士(gentoo)的战斗 Reply with quote


心血来潮加闲的蛋疼,要把家里的毛驴改装成千里马,水平不高胆子大外加一股驴劲,开始战斗!

家有两台老旧电脑,一台99年装的AMD Athlon64,配2GRAM,320GB硬盘,就叫它老二吧;另一台叫不出年代的,已经弃之不用N年,这次不列入。

老二用叉屁(XP),启动需要作祷告,老婆按完开机按钮经常等着等着就睡着,给老二请过大夫(360),把了脉,大夫说是有病,开了药方给治,但没治好。老二也装过“友版图”(Ubuntu),也经常启动时睡觉,并且一睡不醒。

下了绅士(gentoo),version 11.2,新鲜出炉的,给老二引导,老二的键盘鼠标除了在开机时闪亮过外,之后几乎该罢工还是罢工,有一次,大约是后半夜键盘鼠标CPU都能工作了,可我不能工作了。因此怀疑老二得了不治之症。

睡足后,毛驴我的倔劲较上来,为了战胜绅士,急冲冲到电脑城买一台I3 2.3GHZ,配4GRAM,硬盘500GB,技嘉H61M-DS2主板,她是我心目中的千里驹。千里驹安装了win7,神速,开机20秒内保证你可以骑之奔驰。可这东东是盗的,虽然古训云:偷书不算盗。。。

我心向往自由,寻寻觅觅,终于觅到绅士(gentoo),她是自由之花,这花能漂香千里,从异国他乡流芳入内,令爱美爱花之士陶醉,梦寐以求,实在不可多得。可她多刺,常拒人外之千里,常常令追求者失望而回。

废话少说,正题。将绅士放入光驱里启动千里驹,咦?这绅士徒有虚名?也罢工?E文意思有点模糊,似乎是说绅士mount不到光驱,分明是胡说,绅士你刚从光驱里启动,怎么能说mount不到?看来是毛驴错了,错把一支狗尾吧花当玫瑰了,恰似一江温泉结了冰。。。

一头雾水,毛驴头上没全湿,最近刚进了台三星note,急忙用她google一下,咦?也有同学留下足迹喔,说:mount不到光驱是给毛驴装机的商家图方便,没将主板BIOS里的硬盘接口从IDE改成AHCI,就直接装WIN7了!奇怪?毛驴以前就知道硬盘有IDE和SATA接口,怎么又出来一个AHCI兄弟?先管不了那么多了,赶快去BIOS看看,不然,我白花花的2千多银子就冤枉了。果然,在BIOS里找到了AHCI兄弟,选了他,重启,OK!谢了,那位留下足迹的同学,你真可爱!

毛驴脑筋也有突然转弯的时候,老二启动绅士(gentoo)时经常卡死,鼠标灯和键盘灯都点不亮,这鼠标键盘用到千里驹的身上没出现问题,莫非老二被施了魔咒?用XP启动试试,虽然蜗牛爬,但毕竟爬起来了!

毛驴不死心,除非老二主板出问题,否则是被阉了,呵呵,看在XP每次都能启动成功的份上,主板肯定没问题,唯一的可能是被阉了,古代阉人是割鸡鸡,主板只能阉BIOS。听说过阉鸡阉猪阉牛的,没见过电脑被阉的,google也说没有。打开BIOS,发现几乎没有功能是Enable,只许看不许动!哪个王八如此缺德?下手如此阴毒!毛驴可是用这蜗牛爬了N年!

老二的主板是技嘉MA78GM-US2H,用板上显卡、网卡。毛驴急忙打开机箱放电、重启,BIOS居然可以改了,绅士(gentoo)也能启动了,而且速度飞快,毛驴聪明吧?咦,再看看叉屁,难道叉屁蜗牛爬也是这个原因?重启,可叉屁还是蜗牛爬。再重启,用绅士引导,卡死在半路上!毛驴明白了,是叉屁使的阴,哈哈。。。毛驴一不做二不休刚脆把老二的BIOS一起刷了新版。从此把叉屁打入冷宫,永不启用!

用绅士引导千里驹,千里驹飞奔起来了,可她只在命令行状态就停下,看起来不仅简且陋,还是E文,这让长日玩鼠标点点滴滴的毛驴不知如何下手。毛驴过去玩过DOS,那不仅是简且陋,而且他比毛驴拉车时毛病还多得多。别看此时绅士刚露脚指头,简陋,可毛驴我知道简陋里隐含大智慧。。。

从何下手呢?用Note再google一下绅士的安装文档,选官文,这一看真吓一跳,原来连网络都没启动™∂∆。。。仔细看,咦,有道:net-setup eth0,这E文毛驴还看的懂一点,这道是选择题,问:是用无线还是有线网络?当然是有线啦,接下还问什么DHCP?这个这个。。。google去,google真好,有N多的DHCP解释,无非是动态分配IP,IP毛驴见多了,在单位经常点叉屁的两台小电脑时改过,知道是神马东东!选DHCP,回车,OK!临别时,绅士还说ifconfig,这应该是看联网结果,不错,看到IP是192.168.2.100。

题外话,毛驴家装了个无线路由,说是无线路由,其实有6个lan接口,商家说是300M的,可毛驴入户宽带才4M,可惜了这个路由。

跟着gentoo的官文,准备硬盘分区,千里驹还没怎么用,硬盘大着呢,分区就像切蛋糕,绅士要三块,分别用于swap、boot和/(根目录)。swap大小应该是内存的2倍以上,boot给他20个G,还有100多个G给根目录。

按照gentoo的官文一步步往下走,毛驴选中Sohu.inc (http)作为镜像点,上当了,stage包未能效验通过!后面的同学注意了,请你们不要选这个点!

还有一事需提醒后来的同学,下载的stage3和portage包一定备份一下,最好先copy到/boot区保存,万一那天被驴蹄子踢了脑门,要重新格式化根目录时,你可省很多时间。
如果某同学一次完不成所有的作业的,请注意,你不需要重头再来,只需做一下关键几步就可以。

1、#net-setup eth0

在同学们还是用光驱启动时这步不会有问题,如果某同学偷跑,已经编译完内核,并安装到位,用了硬盘启动,可能会有问题:找不到驱程!这里毛驴曾经被罚闭门思过!

一定要安装你的网卡驱动,没使用新内核的同学不必担忧,后面有安装方法,否则,你也得闭门思过!

2、#mount /dev/sdaN /mnt/gentoo

# mount /dev/sdaN-2 /mnt/gentoo/boot

这里的N是你给gentoo根目录的位置。

3、#mount proc none /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash

#mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev

4、# chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash

# env-update

>> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...

# source /etc/profile

# export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"



6.b. 配置Portage


这一步,毛驴选[2]

# eselect profile list

Available profile symlink targets:

[1] default/linux/amd64/10.0

[2] default/linux/amd64/10.0/desktop*

[3] default/linux/amd64/10.0/server







make.conf里的USE等标志设置:

CFLAGS="-march=native -msse4 -msse3 -O2 -fomit-frame-pointer -pipe"

(毛驴在老二哪里设成-march=athlon64,其他没变)

USE="mmx sse sse2 sse3 sse4 alsa gtk -gnome -qt3 -qt4 -kde cdrom dvd dvdr cdr nptl -minimal branding dbus jpeg lock session startup-notification thunar X truetype unicode bzip2 python"

ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="amd64"

INPUT_DEVICES="evdev"

VIDEO_CARDS="intel"

LINGUAS="zh_CN en"


毛驴不想装KDE、Gnome,一心只想装xfce4,因为她最苗条纤细,呵呵,喜欢肥妹可以上KDE或Gnome!


可选:glibc Locales——这项中文是必选项,官文误导!

毛驴的locale.gen是这样:

n_US ISO-8859-1

en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8

zh_CN.UTF-8 UTF-8

zh_CN.GB18030 GB18030

zh_CN.GB2312 GB2312

zh_CN.GBK GBK


7.a. 时区

毛驴选上海作为时区,官文说在/etc/conf.d/clock文件里设置,现在改了,在/etc/conf.d/hwclock里,将clock="local"就是了,这个问题毛驴可是被时钟捉弄了N天。

7.c. 默认:手动配置

这里可是全过程的核心部分,请跟上来的同学仔细看官文,最好先lspci查看你的硬件,显卡、声卡、网卡,这些卡卡可是要命的,搞不好你会蓝屏。

什么?没有lspci? 在chroot前一直有,想回去lspci?输入exit,马上就有,不过,嘿嘿,再chroot一次吧!

这个是毛驴的千里驹部分menuconfig。

1、CPU部分:

[*] Tickless System (Dynamic Ticks)
[*] High Resolution Timer Support
[*] Symmetric multi-processing support
[*] Enable MPS table
[ ] Support for extended (non-PC) x86 platforms
[*] Single-depth WCHAN output
[ ] Paravirtualized guest support --->
[ ] Memtest
Processor family (Generic-x86-64) --->
[*] IBM Calgary IOMMU support
[*] Should Calgary be enabled by default?
[*] AMD IOMMU support
[*] Export AMD IOMMU statistics to debugfs
[ ] Enable Maximum number of SMP Processors and NUMA Nodes
(64) Maximum number of CPUs
[*] SMT (Hyperthreading) scheduler support
[*] Multi-core scheduler support
[ ] Fine granularity task level IRQ time accounting
Preemption Model (Voluntary Kernel Preemption (Desktop)) ---
[*] Reroute for broken boot IRQs
[*] Machine Check / overheating reporting
[*] Intel MCE features
[ ] AMD MCE features
< > Machine check injector support
< > Dell laptop support
<*> /dev/cpu/microcode - microcode support
[*] Intel microcode patch loading support
[ ] AMD microcode patch loading support
<*> /dev/cpu/*/msr - Model-specific register support
<*> /dev/cpu/*/cpuid - CPU information support
[ ] Numa Memory Allocation and Scheduler Support
Memory model (Sparse Memory) --->
[*] Sparse Memory virtual memmap
[ ] Allow for memory hot-add
[ ] Allow for memory compaction
[ ] Enable KSM for page merging
(4096) Low address space to protect from user allocation
[ ] Enable recovery from hardware memory errors
[ ] Transparent Hugepage Support
[ ] Enable cleancache driver to cache clean pages if tmem is pres
[*] Check for low memory corruption
[*] Set the default setting of memory_corruption_check
(64) Amount of low memory, in kilobytes, to reserve for the BIOS
-*- MTRR (Memory Type Range Register) support
[*] MTRR cleanup support
(0) MTRR cleanup enable value (0-1)
(1) MTRR cleanup spare reg num (0-7)
[*] EFI runtime service support
[*] Enable seccomp to safely compute untrusted bytecode
[ ] Enable -fstack-protector buffer overflow detection (EXPERIMEN
Timer frequency (1000 HZ) --->
[*] kexec system call
[*] kernel crash dumps
[ ] kexec jump (EXPERIMENTAL)
(0x1000000) Physical address where the kernel is loaded
[*] Build a relocatable kernel
-*- Support for hot-pluggable CPUs
[ ] Compat VDSO support
[ ] Built-in kernel command line

这些同学们不要照抄,很多项目没必要的,虽然这个在毛驴这里能用。

2、Bus options (PCI etc.) --->

这个是PCI部分,毛驴曾经关掉PCI,以为PCI槽上没插板就不需要PCI部分,结果,嘿嘿。。。死的很难看!
[*] PCI support
[*] Support mmconfig PCI config space access
[*] Support for DMA Remapping Devices (EXPERIMENTAL)
[ ] Enable DMA Remapping Devices by default
[ ] Support for Interrupt Remapping (EXPERIMENTAL)
[*] PCI Express support
[*] Root Port Advanced Error Reporting support
[ ] PCI Express ECRC settings control
< > PCIe AER error injector support
-*- PCI Express ASPM control
[ ] Debug PCI Express ASPM
-*- Message Signaled Interrupts (MSI and MSI-X)
[ ] PCI Debugging
< > PCI Stub driver
[*] Interrupts on hypertransport devices
-*- PCI IOV support
< > PCCard (PCMCIA/CardBus) support --->
< > Support for PCI Hotplug --->
[ ] RapidIO support

3、网络支持(Networking support):

Networking options不用动它,留缺省。

没有wireless的同学,不要理会,把哪些选项全部去除。

有Wireless的,可要用心了,这个一定点:

<*> cfg80211 - wireless configuration API

<*> Generic IEEE 802.11 Networking Stack (mac80211)

4、设备驱动,呵呵,毛驴在这里死过N多回。不想在这里死的同学小心地雷。

Device Drivers --->
Generic Driver Options --->
<*> Connector - unified userspace <-> kernelspace linker --->
< > Memory Technology Device (MTD) support --->
< > Parallel port support --->
-*- Plug and Play support --->
[*] Block devices --->
[ ] Misc devices --->
< > ATA/ATAPI/MFM/RLL support (DEPRECATED) --->
SCSI device support --->
<*> Serial ATA and Parallel ATA drivers --->
[ ] Multiple devices driver support (RAID and LVM) --->
< > Generic Target Core Mod (TCM) and ConfigFS Infrastructure --
[ ] Fusion MPT device support --->
IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support --->
< > I2O device support --->
[*] Macintosh device drivers --->
[*] Network device support --->
[ ] ISDN support --->
< > Telephony support --->
Input device support --->
Character devices --->
-*- I2C support --->
[ ] SPI support --->
PPS support --->
PTP clock support --->
[ ] GPIO Support --->
< > Dallas's 1-wire support --->
-*- Power supply class support --->
<*> Hardware Monitoring support --->
-*- Generic Thermal sysfs driver --->
[*] Watchdog Timer Support --->
Sonics Silicon Backplane --->
Broadcom specific AMBA --->
[*] Multifunction device drivers --->
[ ] Voltage and Current Regulator Support --->
<*> Multimedia support --->
Graphics support --->
<*> Sound card support --->
[*] HID Devices --->
[*] USB support --->
< > Ultra Wideband devices (EXPERIMENTAL) --->
< > MMC/SD/SDIO card support --->
< > Sony MemoryStick card support (EXPERIMENTAL) --->
-*- LED Support --->
[ ] Near Field Communication (NFC) devices --->
[ ] Accessibility support --->
< > InfiniBand support --->
[*] EDAC (Error Detection And Correction) reporting --->
[*] Real Time Clock --->
[*] DMA Engine support --->
[ ] Auxiliary Display support --->
< > Userspace I/O drivers --->
[ ] Staging drivers --->
[ ] X86 Platform Specific Device Drivers --->

4.1 SCSI device support之前的几项可以不理会,使用缺省。

SCSI device support --->
< > RAID Transport Class
-*- SCSI device support
<*> SCSI target support
[*] legacy /proc/scsi/ support
*** SCSI support type (disk, tape, CD-ROM) ***
<*> SCSI disk support
< > SCSI tape support
< > SCSI OnStream SC-x0 tape support
<*> SCSI CDROM support
[*] Enable vendor-specific extensions (for SCSI CDROM)
<*> SCSI generic support
< > SCSI media changer support
[ ] Probe all LUNs on each SCSI device
[*] Verbose SCSI error reporting (kernel size +=12K)
[ ] SCSI logging facility
[ ] Asynchronous SCSI scanning
SCSI Transports --->
[ ] SCSI low-level drivers --->
< > SCSI Device Handlers --->
< > OSD-Initiator library

毛驴认为这里只需

<*> SCSI disk support

<*> SCSI CDROM support

当然你和毛驴一样多选了也没问题,相当于吃饭点多了菜,吃不完打包。

4.2 <*> Serial ATA and Parallel ATA drivers --->

这项对于有IDE和SATA的同学,请选上,不然,嘿嘿。。。AHCI 在这里了,据说AHCI真正使用了SATA特性,比IDE提高30%以上的磁盘访问效率,真不真需后面同学验证,毛驴的千里驹启动那会用AHCI只需3.8秒,而IDE嘛,启动检测两次DMA/100,用了15秒,最后启动完成需要22.7秒。呵呵,毛驴也想把千里驹提速提速再提速,把BIOS改为AHCI后,Win7启动滚回启动,只会驴打滚,google上有70%人说改注册表Win7能换成AHCI方式,哪是瞎掰,毛驴改了还是驴打滚。

下面是千里驹的Serial ATA and Parallel ATA drivers --->
--- Serial ATA and Parallel ATA drivers
[*] Verbose ATA error reporting
[*] ATA ACPI Support
[*] SATA Port Multiplier support
*** Controllers with non-SFF native interface ***
<*> AHCI SATA support
<*> Platform AHCI SATA support
< > Initio 162x SATA support
< > ACard AHCI variant (ATP 8620)
< > Silicon Image 3124/3132 SATA support
[*] ATA SFF support
*** SFF controllers with custom DMA interface ***
< > Pacific Digital ADMA support
< > Pacific Digital SATA QStor support
< > Promise SATA SX4 support (Experimental)
[*] ATA BMDMA support
*** SATA SFF controllers with BMDMA ***
<*> Intel ESB, ICH, PIIX3, PIIX4 PATA/SATA support
< > Marvell SATA support
< > NVIDIA SATA support
< > Promise SATA TX2/TX4 support
< > Silicon Image SATA support
< > SiS 964/965/966/180 SATA support
< > ServerWorks Frodo / Apple K2 SATA support
< > ULi Electronics SATA support
< > VIA SATA support
< > VITESSE VSC-7174 / INTEL 31244 SATA support
*** PATA SFF controllers with BMDMA ***
< > ALi PATA support
< > AMD/NVidia PATA support
< > ARASAN CompactFlash PATA Controller Support
< > ARTOP 6210/6260 PATA support
< > ATI PATA support
< > ARTOP/Acard ATP867X PATA support
< > CMD64x PATA support
< > CS5510/5520 PATA support
< > CS5530 PATA support
< > CS5536 PATA support
< > Cypress CY82C693 PATA support (Very Experimental)
< > EFAR SLC90E66 support
< > HPT 366/368 PATA support
< > HPT 370/370A/371/372/374/302 PATA support
< > HPT 371N/372N/302N PATA support
< > HPT 343/363 PATA support
< > IT8213 PATA support (Experimental)
< > IT8211/2 PATA support
< > JMicron PATA support
< > Marvell PATA support via legacy mode
< > NETCELL Revolution RAID support
< > Ninja32/Delkin Cardbus ATA support
< > Nat Semi NS87415 PATA support
< > Intel PATA old PIIX support
< > OPTI FireStar PATA support (Very Experimental)
< > Promise PATA 2027x support
< > Older Promise PATA controller support
< > RADISYS 82600 PATA support (Experimental)
< > RDC PATA support
< > SC1200 PATA support
< > Intel SCH PATA support
< > SERVERWORKS OSB4/CSB5/CSB6/HT1000 PATA support
< > CMD / Silicon Image 680 PATA support
< > SiS PATA support
< > Toshiba Piccolo support (Experimental)
< > Compaq Triflex PATA support
< > VIA PATA support
< > Winbond SL82C105 PATA support
*** PIO-only SFF controllers ***
< > CMD640 PCI PATA support (Experimental)
<*> Intel PATA MPIIX support
< > Nat Semi NS87410 PATA support
< > OPTI621/6215 PATA support (Very Experimental)
< > PC Tech RZ1000 PATA support
*** Generic fallback / legacy drivers ***
< > ACPI firmware driver for PATA
< > Generic ATA support
< > Legacy ISA PATA support (Experimental)

跟上来的同学注意了,AHCI后,如果不是直接用SATA线接光驱的,极容易mount不上光驱,毛驴的老二电脑就是这样,在/dev下没有sr0,更没有cdrom、dvd,内核编译N遍,每次启动都是panic提抗议,键盘两个灯像天上的星星直眨眼睛,呵呵。

4.3 [*] Network device support --->
--- Network device support
< > Intermediate Functional Block support
< > Dummy net driver support
< > Bonding driver support
< > MAC-VLAN support (EXPERIMENTAL)
< > EQL (serial line load balancing) support
< > Universal TUN/TAP device driver support
< > Virtual ethernet pair device
< > General Instruments Surfboard 1000
< > ARCnet support --->
-*- Generic Media Independent Interface device support
-*- PHY Device support and infrastructure --->
[*] Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit) --->
[*] Ethernet (1000 Mbit) --->
[ ] Ethernet (10000 Mbit) --->
< > Token Ring driver support --->
[*] Wireless LAN --->
*** Enable WiMAX (Networking options) to see the WiMAX driv
USB Network Adapters --->
[ ] Wan interfaces support --->
*** CAIF transport drivers ***
< > FDDI driver support
[ ] HIPPI driver support (EXPERIMENTAL)
<*> PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
[*] PPP multilink support (EXPERIMENTAL)
[ ] PPP filtering
< > PPP support for async serial ports
< > PPP support for sync tty ports
< > PPP Deflate compression
< > PPP BSD-Compress compression
< > PPP MPPE compression (encryption) (EXPERIMENTAL)
< > PPP over Ethernet (EXPERIMENTAL)
< > SLIP (serial line) support
[ ] Fibre Channel driver support
<*> Network console logging support
[ ] Netpoll traffic trapping
< > VMware VMXNET3 ethernet driver

这里是网络驱动,如果是Ethernet网卡

4.3.1 [*] Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit) --->
旧的电脑大多是100M级的网卡,可以在这里找到。
4.3.2 [*] Ethernet (1000 Mbit) --->
新电脑基本都是G级网卡,可以把你的网卡选上,千里驹的网卡是Realtek的8168:
<*> Realtek 8169 gigabit ethernet support
如果里面没你网卡,这项可以一个不选,直接找来包安装,毛驴曾经找来Realtek 8168的包:r8168-8.027.00.tar.bz2,解压,make就OK。

4.3.2 [*] Wireless LAN --->

毛驴的老二电脑用的是TP-LINK的PCI无线网卡,选了这个 <M> Atheros Wireless Cards --->

<M> Atheros 5xxx wireless cards support

如果你是用拨号上网,用PPP

4.3.3 <*> PPP (point-to-point protocol) support

我没用ppp,曾经想远程控制安装,拔掉无线路由,ppp连接电信,没成功,毛驴一直郁闷到现在!

4.4 毛驴在Input device support ---> 上选了
-*- Generic input layer (needed for keyboard, mouse, ...)
{*} Support for memoryless force-feedback devices
< > Polled input device skeleton
< > Sparse keymap support library
*** Userland interfaces ***
-*- Mouse interface
[ ] Provide legacy /dev/psaux device
(1024) Horizontal screen resolution
(768) Vertical screen resolution
< > Joystick interface
<*> Event interface
< > Event debugging
*** Input Device Drivers ***
-*- Keyboards --->
[*] Mice --->
[ ] Joysticks/Gamepads --->
[ ] Tablets --->
[ ] Touchscreens --->
[ ] Miscellaneous devices --->
Hardware I/O ports --->

选了

<*> Event interface
-*- Keyboards --->
[*] Mice --->

因为在xfce4里可以用evdev,USB鼠标。

4.5 Graphics support ---> 打盹的同学醒一醒,3D游戏的大门是在这里开的!现在Intel和AMD都把显卡集成了,用板载显卡的<*> /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) ---> 选你的显卡。什么?这里没有?哪就emerge吧,独立显卡的同学肯定是要emerge了,绅士的portage很伟大,许多问题都可以emerge掉!

毛驴的千里驹显卡是Intel Corporation Sandy Bridge Integrated Graphics Controller (rev 09),用<*> Intel 440LX/BX/GX, I8xx and E7x05 chipset support 支持,有3D功能,glxgears测试结果60FPS。


那台老二电脑用的是Radeon HD 3200,glxgears测试居然达到700FPS。

说起Radeon,毛驴脾气就犯,Radeon HD 3200的驱动曾令毛驴抓狂了2个整天,驴脾气再倔也受不住2天少吃缺睡的摧残。缘由是这样的,mplayer播放器似乎和Radeon叫上劲,在X下只要mplayer播放电影,都会退出X,绝不留情面!找google也没人说类似问题,在非X终端mplayer有声,废话,没声没图像哪还叫play吗?苦思不得其果,逼得没方法,毛驴要将显卡驱动全卸掉,想用VGA启动,卸了一个后,突然想起供给绅士的Radeon驱动有2种,AMD闭源和第三方开源的,为了测试Radeon 3D性能毛驴2个都装了,表面看都能用,也没报什么冲突,但暗地里包藏祸害。毛驴突然明白毛病可能就是在这里,卸掉一个,放mplayer,电影可以放了!奉劝同学们,不要犯毛驴同样错误,驱动不是多多益善!

4.6 <*> Sound card support --->
<*> Advanced Linux Sound Architecture --->
[*] PCI sound devices --->
<*> Intel HD Audio --->



声卡使用集成的Intel HD(VIA HD audio)

4.7 [*] HID Devices --->使用缺省。
4.8 [*] USB support ---> 使用缺省。

到此menuconfig已经配置完成。

7.e. 内核模块

毛驴没找到?/etc/modules.autoload.d这个目录,没钻研。

后面毛驴按照官文一步步走,没遇到什么问题,同学们可以照抄!


安装内核后,重要的步骤是安装grub引导器,同学们要特别小心,先按照官文写出grub.conf,这个最容易出错在(hd0,n)这项,下面是毛驴的grub.conf:


default 1
timeout 8
splashimage=(hd0,5)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz

title Gentoo Linux 3.0.6
root (hd0,5)
kernel /boot/kernel-3.0.6-gentoo root=/dev/sda8 nodetect

title win7
rootnoverify (hd0,0)
makeactive
chainloader +1

用fdisk的p命令看,分区序号是/dev/sda1、/dev/sda2。。。/dev/sda8,绅士的win7安装在sda1上,也就是(hd0,0)上;绅士的内核在sda6(hd0,5)上。

搞错了参数的同学也不要紧张,grub不会破坏叉屁或win7,如果安装grub后硬盘不能引导,用绅士的安装盘引导,用fdisk的p命令列出分区情况,参照修改(hd0,n)。


内核引导成功的同学接下来就可安装Xorg了,网址:http://www.gentoo.org/doc/zh_cn/xorg-config.xml,最关键要确定自己的显卡品牌和型号,毛驴的千里驹使用板载显卡,Intel Corporation Sandy Bridge Integrated Graphics Controller (rev 09),老二用Ati radeon HD 3200,千里驹的显卡驱动已经编译在内核里,启动,2D/3D加速都正常。ATI radeon 前面有说明,费了N天才搞定。如果玩游戏的同学使用外接显卡,按照官文emerge驱动安装,特别是有2张显卡firecross的同学更需用心。


X -configure命令不成功的同学请你重做显卡或键盘鼠标驱动安装这道作业!否则你xfce4考试将通不过。

毛驴安装千里驹,曾经遇到键盘鼠标双双罢工的险情,就是X -configure命令出的,配置内核-->编译内核-->重启-->X -configure-->配置内核。。。死循环一整天!后来是用evdev解决了,evdev是这样完成的: emerge xf86-input-evdev。

如果前面都通过了,安装xfce4倒是简单多了,照官文做就是了。注意:安装slim和xdm会让你进入图形界面简单很多。
安装了xfce4-mount-plugin的同学,请将/usr/share/polkit-1/actions/org.freedesktop.udisks.policy文档的

<action id="org.freedesktop.udisks.filesystem-mount">
<description>Mount a device</description>
<message>Authentication is required to mount the device</message>
<defaults>
<allow_any>no</allow_any>
<allow_inactive>no</allow_inactive>
<allow_active>yes</allow_active>
</defaults>
</action>
修改成
<action id="org.freedesktop.udisks.filesystem-mount">
<description>Mount a device</description>
<message>Authentication is required to mount the device</message>
<defaults>
<allow_any>yes</allow_any>
<allow_inactive>no</allow_inactive>
<allow_active>yes</allow_active>
</defaults>
</action>
不然,嘿嘿,使用非root用户时你桌面上的各个盘都打不开!

毛驴推荐的软件清单:

1、文字处理:Abiword
虽然不能完全兼容word,主要是表格和页眉等兼容不够好,但一般文字处理兼容。她的优点是清瘦速度快。

2、表格处理:gnumeric
她比Excel强N倍!

3、视频播放:mplayer+smplayer
很牛逼的电影播放器,支持的格式超乎想象!

4、中文输入法:fcitx+googlepinyin
功能略逊于google拼音,但基本能满足使用要求。
googlepinyin需要layman来安装,用emerge layman后,用命令:layman -a gentoo-zh,将命令:source /var/lib/layman/make.conf加入你的make.conf中。然后emerge googlepinyin。

5、浏览器:chromium,firefox
很好用的2个浏览器,chromium速度一流,对网页支持非常好。虽然国内网银大多要安装插件,那些插件都是IE版,因此无法支持网银。
如果要翻墙的同学,请使用goagent,goagent是我见到的最稳定的穿墙方法。安装方法参见https://code.google.com/p/goagent/,这个网页有时被可恶的专制GFW墙,打开时需要耐心等待。毛驴使用的chromium版本是16.0.912.63 (开发人员内部版本 0 Linux),switchysharp插件不能使用,可以通过命令行:chromium-browser --proxy-server=127.0.0.1:8087来完成代理。由于不能智能自动识别国内IP,访问国内IP时反而变慢,毛驴的解决方法是在启动面板上安装2个chromium启动项,一个有代理一个没有。
在毛驴的老二电脑上,当初用chromium浏览twitter.com就有ssl出错问题,毛驴为此搞晕了一个月,信息:SSL connection error
Unable to make a secure connection to the server. This may be a problem with the server, or it may be requiring a client authentication certificate that you don't have.
Error 107 (net::ERR_SSL_PROTOCOL_ERROR): SSL protocol error.
找google没有任何解决方法,毛驴经过认真推理,觉得是goagent证书问题,找goagent的FAQ也没有这方面的错误解释,实际上关于linux方面的解释都很少。有老外说由于chromium没有证书管理功能,在linux下需要下载net-libs/nss-utils,毛驴照做了,没用!其实chromium有证书管理功能,糊里糊涂毛驴也加载了goagent的根证书,但问题依然如故。毛驴几乎就要放弃使用chromium上推了,当时用firefox是可以上推,但驴劲上来后,咽不下这口气,非要搞个水落石出。有一天,毛驴看鸟哥的《私房菜》,鸟哥说到目录权限问题,毛驴脑袋转到这个问题上,咦,会不会是goagent的目录或文件权限问题?急忙打开goagent目录看目录所有者是谁,没错,目录及其底下的文件所有者是毛驴,但所有者的权限却是只读,急忙改成读写,试试打开推,干净利落。原来,毛驴为了图方便,goagent目录是直接从win7下copy过来的,只是将所有者从root改为毛驴,没改权限,酿此大祸,罪过!请同学们吸取教训!
那边老二电脑刚搞定ssl连接问题,这边千里驹在用chromium浏览推或g+时出现不信任证书问题,信息:该网站的安全证书不受信任!
You attempted to reach twitter.com, but the server presented a certificate issued by an entity that is not trusted by your computer's operating system. This may mean that the server has generated its own security credentials, which Chromium cannot rely on for identity information, or an attacker may be trying to intercept your communications. You should not proceed, especially if you have never seen this warning before for this site.
出问题找google,这是毛驴的一贯原则,可原则在这不灵!打开chromium证书管理,发现goagent CA证书不被信任,但老二电脑却明明是同样的证书,也是同样chromium,却被信任了!难道还是权限问题?毛驴用root用户运行chromium同样出现问题,说明不是权限问题,哪会。。。?在学校时同学们千辛万苦过五关斩六将,也是为了个证书,看来证书真是个难过的关!
毛驴的脑袋从目录权限到配置文档都想了N遍,也把老二电脑的chromium配置文档copy过来试了几遍,证书依然不被信任!如果灵感的火花能被驴蹄点燃,毛驴愿意被踢一次!
毛驴还是相信推理,既然配置文档、权限都不存在问题,那肯定是先后顺序问题,也就是时机问题,哦,时机——这是一朵灵感火花,驴没踢也有火花,这很值。原来毛驴每次安装用户界面后都在快捷启动栏加入chromium,命令行直接打入:chromium --proxy-server=127.0.0.1:8087,也就是说点击启动chromium就直接代理,而证书的信任认证必须通过网络访问认证网站,认证网站确认后才被chromium信任,恰好goagent证书认证又通过没认证的goagent代理认证,出现了个wrap问题,因此goagent证书不被信任是情理之中!去掉代理,安装goagent ca,OK!
至于firefox,直接emerge firefox ,是8.0,翻墙使用AutoProxy插件,Autoproxy首选项里,找出编辑代理服务器,按添加代理键,填gogent 127.0.0.1 8087,然后使用默认代理:goagent,点工具栏的“福”字,如果变红变黄都处在代理状态。设置好后,可以上twitter、facebook、youtube等,google也反应也快很多,让专制墙见鬼去。


6、FTP:gFtp

7、看图软件:GQview

8、音乐播放器:Audacious

9、笔记本:gedit[/b]
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wgwnxu
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PostPosted: Sat Jan 28, 2012 2:04 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

看了一些国内linux论坛,中文版人气比这里旺,但从专业和管理角度看没有这里好,很羡慕英文版有那么多人在线,问题更新那么快,我是E文半盲,无法用E文交流!
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wgwnxu
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PostPosted: Sat Jan 28, 2012 2:06 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

如果网友有问题,E-mail:wgwnxu@gmail.com
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EricHsu
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Joined: 03 May 2004
Posts: 591
Location: Aragon Consulting Group, Beijing, China

PostPosted: Sat Mar 10, 2012 4:41 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

謝謝分享 :)

建議用論壇自帶的 BBCode 排版一下, 文章會更赏心悦目.
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druggo
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PostPosted: Sun May 06, 2012 3:48 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

楼主写的真有意思 :D
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eya
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PostPosted: Fri May 18, 2012 3:10 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

楼主辛苦了,写的真详细。
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wgwnxu
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PostPosted: Sat Aug 25, 2012 2:46 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

没明白eva的问题,请贴出你遇到的具体问题
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wgwnxu
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PostPosted: Sat Aug 25, 2012 3:05 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

最近安装了libreoffice 3.5.5,编译了2个多小时,编译时遇到过问题,出现过库文件不兼容问题,原因是我没及时更新portage树,更新该树后,用redep-rebuild重新编译了一些已安装的软件,更新了一些库,安装libreoffice过程顺利完成。
感觉libreoffice功能比windows 的office 2007强,比wps强n倍,因为wps经常在文档编写过程出现异常退出,数据没保存,辛苦编写的文档瞬间化为乌有。至今还没发现libreoffice有大问题。值得大家信赖及使用,建议安装。
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misya
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PostPosted: Sun Nov 25, 2012 3:01 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

读起来很有意思哦~
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