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lakicsv
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PostPosted: Tue Dec 31, 2002 4:35 pm    Post subject: "Clone" your Gentoo root partition Reply with quote

Dear Gentooers,

Often times there are upgrades or changes which can potentially render you nicely configured system unsusable. If this disaster happened, it is a very good feeling to have the EXACT copy of your original root partition backed up and ready to use! I wrote a bash script which will clone your gentoo partition on another partition, so you are safe to do anything advetureous...

Why is the script? Isn't "cp -a / /mnt/clone" would be enough? Unfortunately, this would require to unmount separate partitions, like /home, and could cause problems with /dev partition which gentoo uses. Certain special files would also be left out. So, after a reading a long discussion on gentoo user list, I chosen the possibly safest solution (at least what I tried) and wrote a scrip around it to make it easy to use.

I have two (same sized) partitions for gentoo root. I also have /home on a separate partiton and I have one separate partition containing /usr/local (symlinked), /opt (symlinked), /var/tmp/portage (PORTAGE_TMPDIR set in make.conf), /usr/portage/distfiles (DISTDIR set in make.conf). Before I do something dangerous, I run the script to duplicate my root partition, and with this setup I leave out some bulky stuff (copying your distfiles) which normally is not changed that much.
The script has a "pretend mode", so you can see what will happen without any danger...


Here is the help taken from the script (you can also display it with "gent-clone -h")
"############## gent-clone help #####################"

This script will clone your gentoo root partition to "
another partition. Usage:"
gent-clone mode [destination mount point]"

where mode = "-c" Clones current root partition to a destination partition'
"-p" Prentend cloning; useful to see what would happen without any changes'
"-h" Prints this message...'
'Destination mount point should be given as /dir1/dir2 or /dir format, if it is not supplied, then the program uses internal defaults (can be changed at the beginning of the script). A partition should be attached to the destination directory or the mount point listed in /etc/fstab before using the script! Normally, the /etc/fstab file on your root partition will be edited by the script: A new adjusted /etc/fstab is created and copied over - this contains your destination partition mounted as root. If you do not want this behavior, set the FSTAB_FLAG variable from 1 to 0 by editing the first part of this script.

Examples:

gent-clone -c /mnt/clone
-->clone you root partititon to the partition mounted on /mnt/clone '
gent-clone -c
-->clone your current root partition to your predefinied'
partition (set this up by editing the first part of the script)
gent-clone -p
--> Pretend mode: Prints out what will happen when you issue a -c argument'

I call this file as gent-clone. Copy it to an empty file and save it.
I hope someone finds this helpful, I certainly used it regularly...

Cheers: Viktor

Code:

#!/bin/bash
# This script will clone the root partition of your gentoo system to a selected
# partition and create the appropriate fstab file for the cloned partition

#################################################################################

# Change these variables according to your prefs, for CLONE_DIR always use a path
# like /dir1/dir2, never something like /dir or /dir1/dir2/dir3...
# CLONE_DIR either have to be defined in /etc/fstab, or mounted...
# BIND_DIR is a directory to mount - bind your root partition (it is needed for your
# gentoo system which uses devfs - otherwise /dev will not be correctly copied...
# If you do not want to change the fstab file for your cloned partition, set
# FSTAB_FLAG to 0...

BIND_DIR=/mnt/oldroot
CLONE_DIR=/mnt/clone
FSTAB_FLAG=1

#################################################################################
# Do not change these:
SOURCE_DIR=/   
CREATE_BIND_DIR=0
MOUNT_CLONE_DIR=0

###################### Subroutines ##############################################
#_____________________________________________________________________________
Check_params()

# Checks whether your destination partition is mounted or exist in /etc/fstab
# and checks for the need to create mount points
{
   SOURCE_PART=`grep "$SOURCE_DIR\ " /etc/mtab | awk  '{ print $1 }'`
   grep "$CLONE_DIR\ " /etc/mtab &> /dev/null
   if [ $? -ne 0 ]
      then
         grep "^[\ \t]*.*$CLONE_DIR\ " /etc/fstab &> /dev/null
         if [ $? -ne 0 ]
         then
            echo
            echo $CLONE_DIR is not listed in /etc/fstab as a valid mount point. Please either
            echo list it in your fstab, so it can be automatically mounted, or mount a partition
            echo on it !
            echo
            Usage
            exit 1
         else
            CLONED_PART=`grep "^[\ \t]*.*$CLONE_DIR" /etc/fstab | awk  '{ print $1 }'`
            if [ ! -d $CLONE_DIR ]
               then
                  mkdir $CLONE_DIR
            fi   
            MOUNT_CLONE_DIR=1
         fi
      else CLONED_PART=`grep "$CLONE_DIR" /etc/mtab | awk  '{ print $1 }'`
   fi
   if [ ! -d $BIND_DIR ]
      then
         CREATE_BIND_DIR=1
   fi   
}
#_____________________________________________________________________________
Usage() # Prints some help
{
   echo
   echo "############## gent-clone help #####################"
   echo
   echo "This script will clone your gentoo root partition to "
   echo "another partition. Usage:"
   echo
   echo "gent-clone mode [destination mount point]"
   echo
   echo 'where mode = "-c"  Clones current root partition to a destination partition'
   echo '           = "-p"  Prentend cloning; useful to see what would happen without any changes'
   echo '           = "-h"  Prints this message...'
   echo 
   echo 'Destination mount point should be given as /dir1/dir2 or /dir format, if it is not supplied, '
   echo 'then the program uses internal defaults (can be changed at the beginning of the script).'
   echo 'A partition should be attached to the destination directory or the mount point  listed in'
   echo '/etc/fstab before using the script! '
   echo
   echo 'Normally, the /etc/fstab file on your root partition will be edited by the script:'
   echo 'A new adjusted /etc/fstab is created and copied over - this contains your destination'
   echo 'partition mounted as root. If you do not want this behavior, set the FSTAB_FLAG variable'
   echo 'from 1 to 0 by editing the first part of this script.'
   echo
   echo
   echo 'examples: gent-clone -c /mnt/clone - clone you root partititon to the partition mounted on /mnt/clone '
   echo '        : gent-clone -c            - clone your current root partition to your predefinied'
   echo '                                     partition (set this up by editing the first part of the script)'
   echo '        : gent-clone -p            - Pretend mode: Prints out what will happen when you issue a -c argument'
}

#_______________________________________________________________________
Config() # Create /etc/fstab for cloned partition
{
cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab.cloned

SLICE_CLONED=`echo $CLONED_PART | cut -d "/" -f3`   
SLICE_SOURCE=`echo $SOURCE_PART | cut -d "/" -f3`   

SED_FROM='^[\ \t]*\/dev\/'$SLICE_CLONED
SED_TO='\/dev\/clonepart'
cat /etc/fstab.cloned | sed -e "s/$SED_FROM/$SED_TO/" > /etc/fstab.cloned

SED_FROM='^[\ \t]*\/dev\/'$SLICE_SOURCE
SED_TO='\/dev\/rootpart'
cat /etc/fstab.cloned | sed -e "s/$SED_FROM/$SED_TO/" > /etc/fstab.cloned

SED_FROM='^\/dev\/clonepart'
SED_TO='\/dev\/'$SLICE_SOURCE
cat /etc/fstab.cloned | sed -e "s/$SED_FROM/$SED_TO/" > /etc/fstab.cloned 

SED_FROM='^\/dev\/rootpart'
SED_TO='\/dev\/'$SLICE_CLONED
cat /etc/fstab.cloned | sed -e "s/$SED_FROM/$SED_TO/" > /etc/fstab.cloned
cp /etc/fstab.cloned $CLONE_DIR/etc/fstab

}
#_________________________________________________________________________
Clone() # Copies $SOURCE_PART to CLONED_PART
{
      if [ $CREATE_BIND_DIR -eq "1" ]
      then
         mkdir $BIND_DIR
      fi
      if [ $MOUNT_CLONE_DIR -eq "1" ]
      then
         mount $CLONE_DIR
      fi
      mount --bind $SOURCE_DIR $BIND_DIR
      rm -rf $CLONE_DIR/*
      cd $BIND_DIR
      find -mount -print | cpio -pdm $CLONE_DIR
      if [ $FSTAB_FLAG -eq "1" ]
      then
         Config
      fi
      echo
      echo "All done. Partition $SOURCE_PART was cloned to partition $CLONED_PART."
}
#____________________________________________________
Report() # What will happen; Used in pretend mode...
{
      echo

      if [ $CREATE_BIND_DIR -eq "1" ]
      then
         echo Creating $BIND_DIR...
      fi

      if [ $MOUNT_CLONE_DIR -eq "1" ]
      then
         echo Mounting $CLONED_PART on $CLONE_DIR...
      fi

      echo 'Mounting '$SOURCE_DIR' ('$SOURCE_PART') with -bind on '$BIND_DIR'...'
      echo 'Deleting all files in '$CLONE_DIR' ('$CLONED_PART')...'
      echo 'Changing dir to '$BIND_DIR'...'
      echo 'Copying everything in '$BIND_DIR' ('$SOURCE_PART') to '$CLONE_DIR' ('$CLONED_PART')...'
      echo

      if [ $FSTAB_FLAG -eq "1" ]
      then
         echo "Creating and copying a modified fstab, where $CLONED_PART is mounted as / ..."
      fi
}

######################### Main Program Module ##################################

case "$#" in
0)   
   Usage
   exit 1
   ;;
1)
   case "$1" in
   -p)
      Check_params
      Report
      exit 0
      ;;
   -c)
      Check_params
      Clone
      exit 0
      ;;
   -h)
      Usage
      exit 0
      ;;
   *)
      echo
      echo "Unknown parameter..."
      echo
      Usage
      exit 1
      ;;
   esac
   ;;
2)
   case "$1" in
   -p)
      CLONE_DIR=$2
      Check_params
      Report
      exit 0
      ;;
   -c)
      CLONE_DIR=$2
      Check_params
      Clone
      exit 0
      ;;
   -h)
      echo
      echo 'The "-h" parameter cannot be used with additional arguments...'
      echo
      Usage
      exit 1
      ;;
   *)
      echo
      echo "Unknown parameter..."
      echo
      Usage
      exit 1
      ;;
   esac
   ;;
*)
   echo
   echo 'This 2 is the maximum number of params!'
   echo
   Usage
   exit 1
   ;;
esac

############### End #####################################
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pilla
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PostPosted: Tue Dec 31, 2002 6:18 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Works for me. Just don't forget to verify the fstab in the new partition before booting.
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lakicsv
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PostPosted: Tue Dec 31, 2002 9:14 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

What do you mean by verifying? The script creates and copies the new fstab file where the destination partition is mounted as root...
Didn't it wok for you?

Viktor
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pilla
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PostPosted: Tue Dec 31, 2002 9:43 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

The partition wasn't in the fstab (which is allowed by your script). Anyway, you never know.... :wink:
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kram
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PostPosted: Wed Jan 01, 2003 1:32 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I do this:

cp -ax / /mnt/clone
chroot /mnt/clone /bin/bash
emerge baselayout

and then that partition is bootable, works perfect for me :) ... is their a reason why this script is better than my method?
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lakicsv
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PostPosted: Wed Jan 01, 2003 10:08 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I could think of a couple of things:

1. /dev does not get copied (since it is mounted as a dev file system). Doing an emerge baselayout (I think this is supposed to create your dev as well) does not give you an EXACT replica of your root dir...
2. If you have your DISTDIR in a separate partition, you will run into problems: emerge baselayout will fail since in the chroot only one partition is mounted...
3. You have to manually edit /etc/fstab to reflect the changes when you boot your new partition
4. Convenience features: the script will mount your dirs for you, checks against mistakes

My script is intended to deal with all this, making this cloning as automatic as possible. If you dedicate a partition, you can even do it from a cronjob if you want (But I rather do it when it is needed, i.e. before major upgrades: I usually do non-security related upgrades weekly on my workstation - desktop machine)

Cheers: Viktor
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PostPosted: Tue Jan 21, 2003 9:34 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Great script - saved me some work, thanks a million:)

My root partition is on a raid0 array, I should have no problem using your script though, correct ?
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PostPosted: Wed Jan 22, 2003 3:33 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

could you add support to instead of coppying it to compress everything into a file?
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PostPosted: Wed Jan 22, 2003 8:00 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Here you are shown how to compress you gentoo into an tar.gz file. It's in German, but also understandable for non-Gernman speaking people

http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=17462

Dim
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water
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PostPosted: Wed Jan 22, 2003 9:50 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I have made a backup using Mandrake (also somewhere on my harddisk). Not very beautifull, but it works. :D
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PostPosted: Thu Jan 23, 2003 8:55 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

An alternative way to do backup your partition into a compressed file is this:

Code:
tar -X tar.exclude -cvjpf backup.tar.bz2 /*


With this being an example tar.exclude file:

Code:
/mnt
/tmp
/usr/src
/usr/portage/distfiles
/var/tmp
/proc


Be sure to put the path for the backup tar.bz2 archive somewhere on a different partition then your / partition.

Also, I've found Linux Live-CD's (like Knoppix for instance) ideal for restoring backups.
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PostPosted: Sun Feb 02, 2003 6:09 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

much much simpler way would be.

mount drive to wich would hold the backup

Code:

mount /dev/hdc3 /backup


then copy files over

Code:

rsync -va --deleate --exclude=/proc/* --exclude=/dev/* --exclude=/backuo/* / /baclup

then have some code to change the fstab, and add the entry in to your grub config. all done.


then later you can add the -u option to rsync and just update what has changed.
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lakicsv
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PostPosted: Sun Feb 02, 2003 8:11 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

If you look at my original code (I started this thread), you will realize that the whole script could be done in two actual lines in it. 99% of it is checking the parameters, printing out docs making it as automatic as possible.

So by the time your one-liner would do similar things that would be just as complicated and not "much much simpler"...

Just my 2 cents...

Viktor :wink:
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PostPosted: Mon Feb 03, 2003 10:27 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

i just reboot with a live cd (i like knoppix), and do :
Code:
mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/hda3 && dd if=/dev/hda2 | bzip2 > /mnt/hda3/backuphda2.bz2

hda2 is my "/" and hda3 is a partition i use for my backups
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modal
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PostPosted: Sun Feb 09, 2003 5:39 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Or, you could just use EVMS to make a RAID 1 configuration on separate partitions, and constantly have it backed up...although, this script is great if you are going to do something daring like...shhh, emerge crazy-.9-alpha!!
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PostPosted: Sun Feb 09, 2003 7:12 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

your script doesn't work for me, it prints some errors.

Code:

./copydrive: line 21:  : command not found
./copydrive: line 177: syntax error near unexpected token `)'
./copydrive: line 177: `   -p) '


i named it copydrive
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PostPosted: Tue Feb 11, 2003 5:17 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Ok, all you hotshots. I've got a question. If I've got two computers networked together. One fully loaded with disks (that I'm not going to take apart) the other with a 5gb virgin disk waiting to be filled...

can I use knoppix on both computers and somehow ssh from one to the other and copy the root file system? (I've tried but failed miserably :roll: )

Or is there a better way?
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PostPosted: Tue Feb 11, 2003 6:08 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Here's how I do this (and I've had to do it a couple times).

find / -xdev | cpio -pvdm /destdir

Works just fine for me.
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 12, 2003 2:34 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Delphiki wrote:


find / -xdev | cpio -pvdm /destdir



I think I'm being slow. Let's suppose I've got two computers booted under knoppix. I ssh from one to the other and they are talking.
On the virgin computer ssh'd to the gentoo computer, I mount something like
Code:
mount /dev/hda2 /mnt/srcdir

On the virgin computer I
Code:
mount /dev/hda2 /mnt/destdir


Now where does this find come into play?
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 12, 2003 7:15 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:
Now where does this find come into play?


find /mnt/srcdir -xdev | cpio -pvdm /mnt/destdir

I wasn't specifically answering your question, but rather an alternative to the script posted, but this should work as long as you've got both drives mounted.
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 12, 2003 7:29 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Delphiki wrote:

I wasn't specifically answering your question, but rather an alternative to the script posted, but this should work as long as you've got both drives mounted.


Ooops. Oh well, as long as I have you on the line, how can you mount a drive across ssh then? So that on one computer I've got
/mnt/srcdir
/mnt/destdir

Is that possible?
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 12, 2003 10:26 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Accross ssh? I don't believe so. You would need Samba, NFS, or something along those lines for that. Knoppix might be able to do these but I wouldn't know as I've never used it.
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PostPosted: Thu Feb 13, 2003 4:32 am    Post subject: How to backup from one machine to another Reply with quote

Found it. Much simpler then I expected.

The situation:
Machine one is a working gentoo system.
Machine two is an empty box.
A knoppix cd is available.

step 1.
Clean off any unneeded files.
My list is:
/var/tmp/portage/work/*
/usr/portage/distfiles/*

There's probably more, but that gave me 1 gig that I didn't have to transfer.

step 2.
boot machine 2 with the knoppix cd.
open a terminal.
Code:
sudo su
passwd abc
cd /mnt
mount /dev/hda2 hda2
ifconfig

If all is well you will see the ip address of your tcp port. In my case it was 192.168.1.101

Step 3.
on machine 1 (the gentoo box) open a terminal
Code:

su -
password
cd /
tar lcz . | ssh -l root 192.168.1.101 'tar xz -C/mnt/hda2/'

you will be asked for root's password on machine 1 (abc)

once this is finished, you have transferred the / directory. (I'll leave the /boot directory as an exercise ;)

To explain what this does (for the unfamiliar)

tar lcz . | ssh -l root 192.168.1.101 'tar xz -C/mnt/hda2/'

the first part
Code:
tar lcz .
creates a tar file which will be spewn out to wherever. Stdout (the console) is the default, but with the beauty of pipes we can put it elsewhere.
The parameters lcz are:
l=local file system only. (no need to worry about /proc, /dev /mnt)
c is create a new archive,
z is compress.

this all gets piped to ssh
Code:
 | ssh -l root 192.168.1.101


ssh is the transport mechanisum. It asks for the password and then executes
Code:
'tar xz -C/mnt/hda2/'

which extracts the archive spewing (I like that word) out of ssh, uncompresses it, and puts it into /mnt/hda2 (which we mounted in step 2).

It's also possible to open up another terminal and ssh to machine 1 to take a gander at how things are going.
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PostPosted: Fri Feb 14, 2003 3:38 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Delphiki wrote:
Accross ssh? I don't believe so.
SSH can do marvelous things. I've transparently linked three disparate networks over SSH -- `ssh` gives you a bidirectional means of communication (stdin, stdout) so you can run pretty much anything (including pppd).

Again, SSH can do marvelous things. ;)
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PostPosted: Fri Feb 21, 2003 5:53 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

hi guys, i have some problems with this script. (well i have the same error even with rsync metod listed above)

i have my gentoo root partition on /dev/hdd7, i installed gentoo here cause i wanted just to give it a try, but right now i've seen thet gentoo rocks :p, so i want to move to hda1 (hda is faster than hdd)

ok, i've run this script. All files seems to be copied to hda1, i've modified fstab to match new root on hda1 and grub.conf to add newroot entry:
Code:

root (hd0,0)
kernel=/boot/bzImage <parameters here>
initrd=/boot/initrd


Btw, When i try to boot hda1 partition, it instead boot hdd7... i mean that when i arrive on login if i type #mount i see:


/dev/hdd7 on / type reiserfs (rw,noatime,notail)
...
instead of /dev/hda1 as expected. I've found no way to boot hda1.
I've tried even to phisically unplug hdd drive, and when i boot (from a grub boot floppy-disk) hda1 it gives me an error on VFS. I don't remeber exactly which.

Some hints?

Thanks, and sorry for my poor english :)
john
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